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C?est d?j? No?l sur bayardKids 7-12 !
Depuis aujourd?hui, bayardKids 7-12 a rev?tu ses habits de No?l, sous la forme d?un nouveau papier-peint au th?me hivernal.
By Way of Deception, We Shall do War
(ThePeoplesVoice) Lenin (Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov) said, The establishment of a central bank is 90% of communizing a nation. 1 Worldwide control obviously requires extraordinary organization, superior weaponry and high technology (like HAARP), political power and monopoly control of all the resources. On February 17, 1950, James P. Warburg declared to the U.S. Senate, We shall have World Government, whether or not we like it. The only question is whether World Government will be achieved by conquest or consent. 2 In Russia and China and other countries, the elite used thugs for their violent conquest of existing leaders. Populations wouldnt knowingly consent to their own demise. But distracted, nave, ignorant citizens, by their consent, relinquish their liberties by placing their trust in others, (1) two-faced lying politicians who have abandoned the constitution and sold their souls and, (2) the persuasive profit-driven elite media. Smiling talking heads and brilliant, fast-talking female lawyers in low-cut garments legitimize immodesty while peddling infotainment disguised as news. They equivocate among themselves over the Neocons next war target which they claim is necessary to keep America safe. While selling their illusions and building our perceptions, what to wear, eat, drink, think and who to fear, they conceal, suppress or gloss over stories that are actually pertinent to our lives. Jacob H. Schiff, Paul Warburg and other bankers influenced Congress to pass the Federal Reserve Act (December 23, 1913). The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) was created in October 1913 to minimize predictable criticism. The bankers have manufactured panics, withdrawn credit and in the process have confiscated the citizens resources and personal property through phony bailouts, sanctioned by compromised politicians. These actions are calculated and designed to ultimately decimate the economy. The same bankers who promoted the Federal Reserve funded Lenin, Trotsky, Stalin, Zinoviev, Kamenev, Molotov and Kirov (assumed names) in their godless, violent take-over of Russia. The bankers began making major profits when Bernard Baruch, Louis Brandeis and others manipulated their puppet Woodrow Wilson into entering World War I on borrowed money after the provoked attack on the Lusitania. Winston Churchill, a Rothschild minion, referred to the Americans traveling on the ill-fated Lusitania as live bait, a tactic for involving the U.S. in World War I, which started the flow of money from the pockets of U.S. citizens into the vaults of Rothschild and his fellow bankers. The live bait tactic had been successfully used with the deaths of American sailors aboard the USS Maine. Banker-backed corporate moguls exploited the situation. Their political puppets then ordered the military to invade the resource-rich Philippines. Meanwhile, the media vilified and dehumanized the innocent Filipinos so that the invaders could rationalize killing them. Mogul minions followed up by gathering cheap labor to extract resources and the government seized land to build military bases to manage the population and protect the resources. To legitimize propaganda for World War I, Walter Lippmann persuaded President Wilson to create the official Committee on Public Information (CPI) on April 13, 1917. Wilson appointed newspaper publisher, George Creel, as chairman. Creel commissioned the nations artists to produce paintings, posters and cartoons to promote the war. With the expert help of Edward Bernays, the father of public relations and a nephew of Sigmund Freud, the CPI manufactured the most atrocious hate propaganda against the Germans. Bernays manipulated public opinion through crowd psychology, his uncle Sigmunds specialty. Creel had a staff of persuasive wordsmiths journalists, writers, intellectuals and many advertisers who later admitted they were willing to lie, use emotional appeal and enemy demonization to generate hate and fear to elicit support for the war. 3 In anticipation of entering another war, on July 11, 1941, President Roosevelt created the Office of Coordinator of Information (COI), and appointed William J. Donovan, a millionaire Wall Street lawyer, as its head. 4 Communist apologist Eleanor Roosevelt, Wendell Willkie, George Field, Dorothy Thompson, Herbert Bayard Swope, and prominent journalists, academics, trade unionists, theologians, and public officials founded Freedom House, a CFR front, in October 1941. FDR encouraged the groups covert propaganda activities as he hoped it would persuade U.S. citizens to accept entry into World War II. Freedom House was also instrumental in facilitating and supporting post-war policies like the Marshall Plan, NATO, and the UN. 5 The Marshall Plan transferred U.S. tax dollars into the hands of the elite, camouflaged as a humanitarian effort. U.S. taxpayers rebuilt bombed-out foreign countries with the stipulation that the money be spent with banker-backed U.S. companies who raised their prices for those foreign customers. The U.S. embargoed Japan, which depended on imports, to provoke a military response. Churchill and Roosevelt, whose governments had broken the Japanese communication codes, then monitored the progress of Japans military expedition to Pearl Harbor where unwary military personnel, live bait, 2,402 people were killed on December 7, 1941. After Japans retaliatory attack, the media vilified and dehumanized them. The U.S. government, urged by California farmers, also forcibly relocated and interned 110,000 Japanese Americans, mostly west coast farmers who typically sold their produce more competitively than the Caucasians. The government put the Japanese in detention camps and froze all of their assets. At least 80,000 of those individuals had been born in America. On June 13, 1942, after the U.S. entered the war, the COIs propaganda department joined the new Office of War Information (OWI) and was renamed the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) still under Donovans direction. 6 The OSS developed worldwide clandestine capability and employed almost 13,000 men and women. 7 It conducted psychological warfare, often used by governments to marshal the troops for warfare. This included constant repetition of fabricated atrocity stories to prove that the enemy was evil and had to be eliminated.8 In 1942, the State Department and CFR members collaborated to set up a new supranational organization to replace the League of Nations, based on Wilsons internationalist ideas. 9 Secretary of State Cordell Hull (CFR) asked Communist Alger Hiss to assemble a group of fourteen other CFR members to draft the United Nations Charter (UN).10 The UN Charter displaced the U.S. Constitution with little response from the voters who were traumatized by Japans attack on Pearl Harbor. U.S. Senators accepted the charter without even viewing a copy. They were not authorized to bind U.S. citizens, without their consent, to the conditions of the U.N. charter. 10 Stalin would join the allies only if the U.S. would accept the UN. On April 12, 1952, Secretary Dulles would claim, Treaty law can override the Constitution. Treaties can take powers away from Congress and give them to the President. 12 Truman suspended OSS operations on October 1, 1945. Its leaders, trained personnel and assets were ultimately transferred into the newly created Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) via the National Security Act, July 26, 1947. Among the transferees to the CIA were four future CIA Directors, Allen Dulles, Richard Helms, William Colby, and William Casey. The CIA, created and staffed by the elite, is a worldwide organization to perpetrate covert terrorist activities. It has links to Britains MI6 and to the Israeli Mossad. Truman struggled to regularize the CIAs psychological warfare, one of the agencys greatest propaganda triumphs. 13 The CIAs activities, per the official government directive, included the following, propaganda; economic warfare; preventive direct action, including industrial sabotage, demolition and evacuation measures; subversion against hostile states, including assistance to underground resistance movements, guerrilla and refugee liberation groups, and support of indigenous anti-Communist or now anti-nationalist elements in countries around the world. Such operations should not include armed conflict by recognized military forces, espionage, counter-espionage, and cover and deception for military operations. 14 Presidents Truman and Eisenhower introduced and mobilized propaganda as an official peacetime practice. Gun-toting dictators make demands but democracies use propaganda to persuade citizens to accept ideas, points of view, or policy positions as if the communication were immediately or ultimately their own. 15 Truman established the Psychological Strategy Board, as part of the CIA, on April 4, 1951 with Gordon Gray (CFR) as the first Director. Henry Kissinger, a Harvard professor, was Grays consultant. 16 The CIA published and disseminated hundreds of books promoting the official Cold War party line. A CIA-backed, worldwide media network provided cover for their agents and allowed the distribution of misinformation that predictably spread to the U.S. via the wire services, which also employed CIA agents who prevented problematic facts from gaining public exposure. 17 Frank Wisner, along with Allen Dulles, Richard Helms and Phillip Graham (publisher of The Washington Post and husband of CFR/Trilateralist Katharine Graham) established Operation Mockingbird, the CIA program designed to control the U.S. media. 18 For decades U.S. news has been fabricated. In 1981, CIA Director William Casey said, Well know our disinformation program is complete when everything the American public believes is false. In 1948, according to John F. Kennedy, many of Trumans supporters abandoned him because he supported the Morgenthau Plan and other questionable issues. On his whistle-stop campaign train during the presidential race, an avid U.S. Zionist delivered a suitcase containing $2 million in cash which gave him the financial boost he needed to win in what was considered the greatest election upset in U.S. history.19 Truman believed, as a result of the Holocaust, that Jews were oppressed and deserved a homeland. The British relinquished the problem of a shared Arab-Jewish state to the UN on April 2, 1947 because of Jewish terrorism in Palestine. President Truman instructed a reluctant State Department to endorse the UNs partition plan of November 29, 1947. At midnight on May 14, 1948, Israels Provisional Government announced the new State of Israel. On that same day, like Roosevelts recognition of the Soviet government, Truman officially recognized the Zionist government in Palestine against the advice of many people. Truman didnt bother to tell leading State Department officials who became angry when they heard about it. On May 15, 1948, the Arab states responded by invading Israel which began the first Arab-Israeli war. 20 Zionists held only 7% of the land when they proclaimed their state. After Trumans recognition, public relations experts started promoting the phrase Judea-Christian to help establish Americas special relationship with Israel. Dwight D. Eisenhower was president of Columbia University (19481953) just before he was installed as U.S. president. Bernard Baruch first met the like-minded Eisenhower in 1928. Rockefeller and Morgan agents and numerous CFR members backed Eisenhower, a womanizing scoundrel, in the presidential election in 1952. After his nomination he told the President of the United Synagogue of America, The Jewish people could not have a better friend than me I grew up believing that Jews was the chosen people and that they gave us the high ethical and moral principles of our civilization. 21 He accommodated the OSS in their covert assassination of General George S. Patton 22 who opposed the Morgenthau Plan and Eisenhowers death camps and was going to reveal Eisenhowers close collaboration with the Soviets. Eisenhower halted the U.S. troops in order to allow the Soviets to liberate Berlin. Ilya Ehrenburg, the head of Soviet propaganda directed the Soviet troops to ravage and rape the German women. At least 50,000 and perhaps as many as 100,000 females of every age were savagely raped; many of them were tortured and killed.23 By 1953, the CIA had 7,200 people working on covert actions, activities that took 74% of the CIAs yearly budget.24 The CIA always recruited their leaders from the elite class businessmen, credible journalists, Ivy League scholars and Wall Street lawyers and bankers. Irving Kristol, Paul Weyrich, William Simon, Richard Mellon Scaife, Frank Shakespeare, and William F. Buckley, Jr. were connected to the CIA. George Washington, in his farewell address, advised Americans to avoid an unnatural connection with any foreign power and to have with them as little political connection as possible. 25 Apparently, future leaders ignored that advice. By June 1953, the U.S. government had given Israel $293,000,000 with an additional of $200,000,000 as Export-Import bank loans. The New York Herald-Tribune of March 12, 1953 reported that, in the first five years of Israels existence, including gifts, the total amounted to $1,000,000,000. This was in addition to the money they extracted from Germany. 26 Beginning in 1953, Irving Kristol (CFR), the godfather of neo-Conservatism, and a former Trotskyite (opposed Stalins focus on Russia in preference of a worldwide system), co-edited the magazine Encounter, published in London and financed by the CIA. It was the voice of the CIA-funded Congress for Cultural Freedom and regularly promoted Fabian Socialism and the Labour Party. Kristol was also the editor of Commentary (1947-1952) and the editor of The Reporter (1959-1960). Kristol moved his family back to the U.S. by 1960. Daniel Bell (CFR) and Kristol founded The Public Interest (1965-2002), a publication of Freedom House, under the direction of George Field, its executive director. Field was also chairman of the RAND School for Social Science which was owned by the American Socialist Society and financed by the Garland Fund. Both Bell and Kristol were subsidized by the CIA, through the Congress for Cultural Freedom, the same organization that funded some of Gloria Steinems social engineering activities. Bell worked for Henry Luce (S&B, CFR) and advocated the dissolution of all borders and local governments. Irving Kristol founded and published The National Interest (1985-2002). He was a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a member of the American Enterprise Institute and a John M. Olin Distinguished Fellow (1988-1999). He contributed a monthly column to the Wall Street Journal (1972-1997). He served on the Council of the National Endowment for the Humanities (1972- 1977). From the 1950s forward, chaos, in various strategic places, has reigned, perpetrated primarily by the CIA in conjunction with foreign intelligence agencies. In 1954, Secretary of State John Foster Dulles ordered the CIAs Saigon Military Mission (SMM) to engage in guerrilla warfare operations in Vietnam. Dulles told these agent provocateurs to raise hell. 27 The turmoil was then blamed on the local citizens, who were now referred to as the insurgency. CIA Director Allen Dulles assigned Edward Lansdale and his CIA cohort Lucien Conein, to engage in unconventional warfare in Vietnam where they created the Vietnam Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG). 28 In June 1954, the SMM established a campaign of undercover military and psychological warfare. They had unlimited U.S. taxpayer dollars and engaged in political, psychological and terrorist activities against the native population in the northern regions, especially in Hanoi and in the surrounding Tonkin area. They polluted petroleum supplies, sabotaged the railroad, tried to destroy the largest printing business in the North, bombed the post offices, and distributed millions of propaganda leaflets to incite fear and vast amounts of counterfeit money which created calculated inflation. 29 When the Tonkinese villagers, mostly Catholic, were sufficiently frightened and intimidated, the CIA offered to transport them from the north to the south. The CIA manipulated the Catholic hierarchy who then urged thousands of Catholics to evacuate. 30 Those resistant to relocation were told that the U.S. was going to use the atomic bomb on them if a civil war erupted between the north and the south.31 Weapons and agents were left in the north with an abundance of CIA-supplied counterfeit currency to continue the economic destabilization. 32 Tens of thousands of the terrorized citizens fled on foot. The CIA transported the remainder via their Civil Air Transport Airlines (CAT) and U.S. Navy ships at a cost of about $100 million. The Catholics were moved into a predominately Buddhist population which intentionally created religious, civil, and economic strife. 33 The CIA and the Mossad are expert in population relocation in order to provoke civil and religious strife. The deliberate decimation of Mexicos peso in the mid 1990s (and Bushs de facto North American Union) created an influx of desperate Mexicans into the U.S, in conjunction with the drug cartels operations. Zionists expelled 750,000 Palestinians from their homeland in 1948; forced another 350,000 to flee Gaza in 1967 and forced another 147,000 Syrians from the Golan Heights in order to repopulate the areas, without compensation. Of course, the media suppresses these terrorist activities. Also, U.S. warfare in the Middle East caused thousands of dispossessed Muslims to flee elsewhere. This ongoing clash of cultures, the foreign incursion into Americas diminishing economy and de-industrialization (by corporate outsourcing for cheaper labor) creates tension. The media incites religious and economic outrage while concealing the cause and effect activities of the real culprits who prey on all of us. In 1954, Israeli agents working under cover planted bombs in several Egyptian buildings, including a U.S. facility. The Israelis were trying to flip U.S. support of Egypt to Israel. So they planted evidence implicating the Arabs. However, one of the bombs detonated prematurely. The Egyptians captured one of the culprits who revealed the identities of the other members of the Israeli espionage group, some of whom were from Israel and others were local Jews. Often Israelis move to other countries, hold dual citizenship, and engage in dubious activities while working in government positions and other influential positions, in opposition to the best interests of the host country. The Israeli media immediately denied all culpability and claimed that it was a scam perpetrated by anti-Semites, a convenient oft-used ruse to silence justifiable criticism. However, in a subsequent trial, individuals produced clear-cut evidence that proved Israeli involvement in the bombing. Top Israelis blamed Israels Defense Minister Pinhas Lavon; he resigned. The operation is known as the Lavon Affair or Operation Susannah. Regarding anti-semitism, Norman G. Finkelstein wrote, The new anti-Semitism actually incorporates three main components: (1) exaggeration and fabrication, (2) mislabeling legitimate criticism of Israeli policy, and (3) the unjustified yet predictable spillover from criticism of Israel to Jews generally. 34 On December 11, 1955, the Syrians captured five Israeli soldiers who were in the process of installing a wiretapping apparatus on the Syrian telephone network. The Israelis version of the event was that the five men had been abducted in Israel and taken to Syria and tortured. Public opinion was skewed in Israel and in the West in favor of Israel. By then, Israel had diverted the flow of the Jordan River at the expense of the areas other inhabitants. On October 1, 1955, the U.S. government, through the CIA, gave Israel the green light to attack Egypt. 35 I was in Israel in 1999 when our group received special permission to visit a specific site on the Jordan River which was little more than a tiny stream of putrid water. It was, at that time, guarded by several gun-totting Israeli soldiers. Our tour group was repeatedly warned not to discuss Christianity with any Israeli citizen as they have disdain for Christians. According to the Talmud (Traditions of the Elders), Jesus led Israel astray; his mother Mary was an adulterer and a whore and Jesus is in hell, in boiling excrement. The Talmud states that Christians will also be in hell for eternity in boiling excrement if they oppose Judaism. Jewish sages encourage their followers to daily recite the following Blessed be thou who hast not made me a goy. 36 Goy is a negative term for gentile; some say it means cattle. In October 1960, just prior to the presidential election, John F. Kennedy visited with his good friend, Charles Bartlett, a journalist. The previous evening, Kennedy had been the dinner guest of an elite group of wealthy, influential Jews at the New York home of Abraham Feinberg, chairman of the American Bank and Trust Company. Their spokesman told Kennedy that they recognized that his campaign was in financial difficulty. The group then offered significant financial help if Kennedy as president would allow them to set the course of Middle East policy over the next four years. 37 Bartlett recalled, He said if he ever did get to be president, he would push for a law that would subsidize presidential campaigns out of the U.S. Treasury. He added that whatever the cost of this subsidy, it would insulate future presidential candidates from this kind of pressure and save the country a lot of grief in the long run. Congressman Paul Findley (1961-1982) inquired further and discovered that Adlai E. Stevenson had a similar experience in 1956. 38 Findley wrote, Ethnic group pressure is an ever-present part of U.S. partisan politics, and because the president of the United States is the executor of all foreign policy, and the formulator of most of it, pressures naturally center on the people who hold or seek the presidency. When the pressure is from friends of Israel, presidentsand presidential candidatesoften yield. 39 This has been the case since Trumans presidency (19451953). Condoleezza Rice once said, We have an Israel-centric foreign policy. Regarding Iraq, Findley said, Our forces invaded because Israel wanted us to topple Saddam. Two religious communities one consisting of a combination of secular and ultra-Orthodox Jews and the other of misguided Christian fundamentalists control U.S. Middle East policies. 40 By 1977, Washington Post journalist Carl Bernstein said that over 400 journalists, distinguished reporters and foreign correspondents were CIA employees. A high-level source told Bernstein, One journalist is worth twenty agents. Pulitzer Prize winner Arthur Schlesinger, a former OSS agent transferred to the CIA. 41 The CIA, before 1990, paid college professors to write at least 1,200 propagandistic, anti-Communist books about places like the Soviet Union, Vietnam, China, Cuba and the Congo. 42 Columbia University, along with other schools, is a CIA recruiting ground. The Communists recruited Whittaker Chambers when he was there. Prior to 1967, Islamic fundamentalism was a relatively small movement. Osama bin Laden, supported by the CIA, headed the al Qaeda network. Al Qaeda, referred to as the database, was part of a CIA operation after the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan on December 24, 1979, part of Columbia professor Zbigniew Brzezinskis plan to destabilize the Soviet Union. Brzezinski (CFR), the founding Director of the Trilateral Commission and a Rockefeller minion with CIA ties as early as 1959, was President Carters National Security Advisor (1977-1981). By 1984, the CIA supplied textbooks for Afghan students through USAID, a CIA front group. The textbooks were written under the direction of Dr. Thomas Gouttierre, head of Afghanistan Studies at the University of Nebraska where the books were published. Dr. Gouttierre is friends with Zalmay Khalilzad (CFR), U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan and Iraq (2003). Khalilzad, an Afghan-born Muslim was a former adviser to Unocal and was an Assistant Political Science Professor at Columbia University (1979-1986) where he worked closely with Brzezinski. The textbooks were designed to create a militaristic populace in order to provoke resistance to the Soviets and future enemies. The books illustrations included tanks, land mines and missiles and promoted hatred. 43 The U.S. supplied these incendiary textbooks (1984-1994) under Presidents Reagan and George H. W. Bush (S&B). Bush was Vice President under Reagan (1981-1989). All CIA records regarding Bush and his company, Zapata covering 1960 to 1966 were destroyed when he became vice president in 1981. Bush was CIA director (1976-1977). In 1982, President Reagan created the National Endowment for Democracy (NED) in order to acceptably manage CIA activities. Freedom House, the group created in 1941, became a part of this network. NED helped to finance Freedom House. Paul Wolfowitz, in the early 1980s, along with his neoconservative allies, collaborated with numerous Trotskyites. With the hidden funding and under the cover of conservative think tanks, the U.S. government can influence the public and conceal its interventions in foreign politics. At least six million people had perished by 1987 as a result of the CIAs covert operations. Not only is the CIA not an intelligence agency, it distorts information and perpetuates misinformation and disinformation to justify its own goals. This wide-range deception has resulted in organized terrorism throughout the world. Using the CIA, our government routinely dismisses or ignores national and international laws under the guise of national security. 44 Interestingly, alarm over Islamic fundamentalism actually occurred at about the same time that Reagan called for the dismantlement of the Berlin Wall, formally concluded on October 3, 1990, followed by the official collapse of the Soviet Union on December 25, 1991. With Soviet Communism gone and the Berlin Wall dismantled, the State Department would either be forced to create another enemy or decrease their defense budget to about half of what it had been which would really cut into the elites profits. Shortly thereafter, the first Gulf War was devised to purportedly protect the oil resources of the Middle East against so-called rogue states and nuclear outlaws. 45 Islamic fundamentalism, our latest enemy, replaced Communism. Imam Feisal Abdul Rauf (CFR), the man behind the proposed Muslim community center two blocks from ground zero, came to the U.S. with his family in 1965. In 1997 he founded the American Society for Muslim Advancement (ASMS), a tax-exempt foundation. Its mission statement states, We collaborate with other faith-based organizations to build relationships of trust through dialogue and education, honoring the diversity of faiths, sharing commonalities, and celebrating differences. 46 Interestingly, ASMS is funded by the Rockefeller Brothers; the Carnegie Corporation of New York; Rockefeller Philanthropy; Rockefeller Brothers Fund; Global Fund for Women; The Russell Family Foundation; Danny Kaye & Sylvia Fine Foundation; Graham Charitable Foundation; Henry Luce Foundation; Hunt Alternatives; The Ms. Foundation and other elite tax-exempt foundations.47 The people who sign the check determine the policy. Are all of these people on the same team, playing the public and causing controlled conflict? In 1972, Gloria Steinem (CIA agent extraordinaire), Patricia Carbine, Letty Cottin Pogrebin and Marlo Thomas founded The Ms. Foundation. 48 Steinems social engineering activities led to Roe v. Wade. Pogrebin authored In Defense of the Law of Return for The Nation on December 22, 2003, a law passed in Israel on July 5, 1950 which grants any Jew automatic citizenship. 49 Pogrebin, a financial contributor to Obama since 2004, 50 is a member of Americans for Peace Now (APN) the most prominent American Jewish Zionist organization working to achieve a comprehensive political settlement to the Arab-Israeli conflict. 51 Former Harvard professor, William Bill Kristol, the son of Irving Kristol, was Chief of Staff to Vice President Dan Quayle, under the first Bush regime. Bill Kristol founded the Project for a New American Century (PNAC), a tax-exempt foundation, in the spring of 1997, the same year that Rauf founded the ASMS. PNAC, with close ties to the American Enterprise Institute, was funded by the Sarah Scaife Foundation, the John M. Olin Foundation and the Bradley Foundation. Its objectives are U.S. Global supremacy and a Greater Israel. Twenty-five people signed their mission statement, seventeen of whom belong to the CFR, whose objective is a one-world government. Founding members include Elliott Abrams (CFR), Gary Bauer, William J. Bennett (Irving Kristols protg), Jeb Bush, Richard B. Cheney (CFR), Eliot A. Cohen (CFR), Midge Decter (CFR), Paula Dobriansky (CFR), Steve Forbes, Aaron Friedberg (CFR), Francis Fukuyama (CFR), Frank Gaffney, Fred C. Ikle (CFR), Donald Kagan (CFR), Zalmay Khalilzad (CFR), I. Lewis Libby (CFR), Norman B. Podhoretz (CFR), Dan Quayle, Peter W. Rodman (CFR), Stephen P. Rosen (CFR), Henry S. Rowen (CFR), Donald Rumsfeld, Vin Weber (CFR), George Weigel (CFR), and Paul Wolfowitz (CFR). In 1992 Libby and Wolfowitz wrote Defense Planning Guidance for Defense Secretary Dick Cheney. Bill Kristol, advocates neoconservatism, the American version of Trotskys Bolshevism. Kristol, a Bilderberger, a Manhattan Institute trustee, is also the editor and co-founder, along with John Podhoretz, of the Weekly Standard Magazine, established September 17, 1995 and funded, at a loss, by Rupert Murdoch (CFR), a Zionist. This so-called conservative magazine, co-edited by Fred Barnes, promotes the warhawk mentality, the same message heard on numerous conservative talk shows and on Murdochs Fox Network. Weekly Standard contributors include Joseph Epstein, Charles Krauthammer (CFR), Brit Hume, a Fulbright scholar,52 Tucker Carlson, Robert W. Kagan (CFR) foreign policy analyst and son of Donald Kagan (CFR), Yale Professor John Podhoretz (son of Norman Podhoretz) and others. In 1995 Kristol confessed to the New Yorker: The liberal media were never that powerful, and the whole thing was often used as an excuse by conservatives for conservative failures. 53 See a video on PNAC here (warning: language). Norman B. Podhoretz (CFR), a Trotskyite, in his books has admitted that the reason for the Cold War was to weaponize Israel to fight the Arab nations. He belongs to the influential New York chapter of the American Jewish Committee, one of the leading Zionist organizations operating within the U.S. It publishes the liberal-turned-conservative Commentary magazine. 54 Kagan is a columnist for the Washington Post which was associated with the CIAs Operation Mockingbird. He is a senior associate of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and wrote Of Paradise and Power: America and Europe in the New World Order. Now, remembering that the CIA probably controls much of what we hear from the elite-owned media, according to Pew, 30% of all Americans obtain their news from talk radio and cable television many never read a book. A large percentage get their news from the Fox Network whose employees receive the morning memo, a directive on how to spin the news of the day. Roger Ailes, former Republican campaign wizard, is president of Fox News Channel and chairman of the Fox Television Stations Group which has a throng of journalists and guests who push right-wing propaganda disguised as news.55 According to a decision by the Florida Appeals Court on February 14, 2003 in the Jane Akre whistleblower lawsuit, the court agreed with Fox News that it is not against the law to distort or falsify the news in the U.S. 56 In 1997, Isral Shahak wrote, Since the spring of 1992, public opinion in Israel is being prepared for the prospect of a war with Iran, to be fought to bring about Irans total military and political defeat. In one version, Israel would attack Iran alone; in another it would persuade the West to do the job. 57 On January 26, 1998, the PNAC warhawks, in a letter to President Clinton, urged him to invade Iraq to depose Saddam Hussein. In October 1998, the Catastrophic Terrorism Study Group completed a nine-month long study of the technologies and defenses against terrorists. The study group was a collaboration of the faculty of Harvard, MIT, Stanford and the University of Virginia. It was funded by the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, and the Herbert S. Winokur Public Policy Fund at Harvard University. The group produced a report entitled: Catastrophic Terrorism: Elements of a National Policy. 58 An article based on the academic Study Group report appeared in the CFR journal Foreign Affairs in the November-December 1998 issue, the same year that PNAC wrote to President Clinton suggesting the removal of Hussein. The project director was Philip D. Zelikow, later the gatekeeper executive director of the 9/11 Commission. He earlier co-authored a book with Condoleezza Rice (both members of Bush 41s National Security Council) entitled Germany Unified and Europe Transformed: A Study in Statecraft. Zelikow also authored The National Security Strategy of the United States which became the new preemptive war doctrine of the Bush administration written for then National Security Council Director, Condoleezza Rice who had worked on the Bush transition team. He had a hidden agenda connect al Qaeda and Iraq. 59 PNACs policy statements were compiled in Rebuilding Americas Defenses, Strategy, Forces and Resources for a New Century, published in September 2000. We read, Further, the process of transformation, even if it brings revolutionary change, is likely to be a long one, absent some catastrophic and catalyzing event like a new Pearl Harbor. 60 It appears that 9/11 was that new Pearl Harbor. As Shahak indicated, Israel was going to persuade the West to wage war. Just how would Israeli political leaders persuade the U.S. to invade their enemy, a country that has not militarily assaulted the U.S.? The elite, for over 100 years, has used false flag assaults and very pervasive media propaganda to win public support for their warfare. The CIA and their foreign intelligence counterpart, the Mossad, have lengthy experience in false flag tactics, the actual reason for their existence. At least two previous incidents, probably more, involved Israel. On June 8, 1967, there was a failed attempt to use the live bait device, with government foreknowledge, with the USS Liberty. The Zionist owned U.S. media kept quiet about the Israeli attack on the ship. Then on October 12, 2000, the live bait tactic was used in the USS Cole where seventeen U.S. sailors were killed, and thirty-nine were injured. A small boat moved to the port side of the destroyer when all the sailors were gathering in the galley for lunch. An explosion occurred which created a 40-by-40-foot hole in the ship. Al Qaeda, led by Osama bin Laden, a CIA asset, took credit for the attack. Yet, samples of the explosives retrieved from the ships hull showed that materials used were only available in the U.S. and Israel. Then the live bait tactic was used on 9/11 to get the U.S. to remove Hussein and bomb Iraq back to the Stone Age. Within twenty-four hours of 9/11 the media miraculously, as if all the information were prepared beforehand, revealed histories, photos, and details about the Muslim terrorists who allegedly perpetrated the attack. Bin Laden, who died in December 2001, even came back from the dead to claim responsibility. 61 Fox News announced his death on December 26, 2001. 62 Despite the terrorists amazing ability to subvert the military response apparatus of the worlds most powerful nation, they failed to cover their trail and left a substantial amount of easy-to-find fireproof evidence. Their unhindered assault on a specific section of the Defense Department halted an audit that would have exposed billions of dollars of stolen money that had been funneled to special friends. The Port Authority, after it lost a 10-year asbestos lawsuit on May 1, 2001, were stuck with a money-losing albatross that they couldnt get a license to demolish. On July 24, 2001 Eisenberg of the Port Authority leased the towers to his friend Larry Silverstein. Almost prophetically, Silverstein quickly insured the towers against a terrorist attack. 63 On September 20, 2001, PNAC members sent a letter to President Bush in which they urged him to wage the nations first war of the 21st century including the capture or killing of Osama bin Laden, and the capture and prosecution of any and all perpetrators of 9/11. They encouraged Bush to go after any other group that means us harm. They advocated the end of Husseins government and the financial and military support of any Iraqi opposition. They also encouraged him to go after Hezbollah and the countries that support them, Iran and Syria. If Iran and Syria fail to comply and cooperate then the U.S. should take action against those countries. They further recommended that the U.S. withhold support from the Palestinians in favor of support to Israel. 64 The letter said, But even if evidence does not link Iraq directly to the attack, any strategy aiming at the eradication of terrorism and its sponsors must include a determined effort to remove Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq. 65 Richard Perle said, This is total war. We are fighting a variety of enemies. There are lots of them out there. All this talk about first we are going to do Afghanistan, then we will do Iraq, then we take a look around and see how things stand. This is entirely the wrong way to go about it If we just let our vision of the world go forth, and we embrace it entirely, and we dont try to piece together clever diplomacy, but just wage a total war our children will sing great songs about us years from now. 66 Paul Wolfowitz said the anti-terrorism campaign has to be broad and sustained. Its not going to stop if a few criminals are taken care of. 67 Iran, another industrial competitor, is the next war target which brings us back to the subject of Feisal Abdul Rauf, the individual behind the Manhattan mosque project. Rauf is a member of the World Economic Forums Council of 100, an organization composed of business, political, religious, media and opinion leaders that advocates openness and understanding between the West and Muslim world. 68 Rauf is also a member of the CFRs Religious Advisory Committee, along with Jim Wallis, publisher of Sojourners. He has been an imam in New York City for twenty-seven years. The building project, the Cordoba House, a 13-story, $100 million project, is planned as a community center complete with a swimming pool, culinary school, art studios and other features. It is to be built on properly zoned, private property two blocks from ground zero. The city Landmarks Preservation Commission approved of the construction. However, the American Center for Law and Justice, founded by Reverend Pat Robertson, filed a lawsuit in a state court to dispute the commissions decision. They could have built the facility, like any other private group, on private property, without public scrutiny. The media has driven this issue and incited anger. Recall that Freedom House was organized in 1941 to promote World War II. They are still propagandizing. William Howard Taft IV (S&B, PNAC 69 ) is its current chairman. It is an international non-governmental organization that endorses a one-world government and opposes all nationalist governments. It has offices in offices in Algeria, Hungary, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mexico, Uzbekistan, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Ukraine. Taft supports the Law of the Sea which places all of the oceans under the jurisdiction of the UN. Since 1941, the group has developed ties to the CIA, the Brookings Institution, the U.S. Institute of Peace and other institutions and government agencies. Freedom House, a propaganda vehicle, is also a front group for the CFR, the British counterpart of the Royal Institute of International Affairs. In 2005 Freedom House was receiving U.S. government funds for clandestine activities inside Iran. The organization receives about 66% of its budget from the U.S. government. 70 See the list of their board members here. Other financing comes from the Scaife Family Foundation which finances many groups and individuals, especially those associated with the CFR, including, Newt Gingrichs (CFR) GOPAC, the Federalist Society, the Media Research Center and Joseph Farahs World Net Daily all of which selectively dispense conservative views. The National Endowment for Democracy, a proponent for one world governance also finances Freedom House. 71 R. James Woolsey (CFR, PNAC) former CIA Director (1993-1995) was a signatory on the 1998 letter to President Clinton calling for Husseins removal. On September 11, 2001, Woolsey claimed that Iraq was involved in the attack. A year later, he claimed that Iraq was also involved in the 1993 attack on the World Trade Center and the 1995 bombing of the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City. Woolsey, a former Chairman of Freedom House board (2003- 2005) was a Rhodes Scholar and a Booz Allen Vice President (2002-2008). 72 He was part of the secretive North American Forum held in Canada, September 12-14, 2006. 73 In July 2006, Woolsey suggested that the U.S. bomb Syria. His wife, Suzanne H. Woolsey (CFR), has been a Director of the Fluor Corp., an engineering and contracting firm since February 3, 2004. By August 2004, Fluor had a $1.6 billion Iraqi reconstruction contract. Fluor made about $1.3 billion for reconstruction after Hurricane Katrina (August 23-29, 2005), 74 a storm (HAARP?) that displaced 1.5 million people and caused about $81.2 billion in damage. On September 26, 2005, Senator Mel Martinez hosted the Halliburton-sponsored Katrina Reconstruction Summit for no-Katrina-victims-need-apply contractors. 75 Freedom Houses Center for Religious Freedom is now listed on the Hudson Institute web site. On November 15, 2005, Nina Shea (CFR), the Director of the Center for Religious Freedom at Freedom House presented a 19-page report to the Committee on International Relations of the U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Africa, Global Human Rights and International Operations. This report describes the followers of Saudi Arabias Wahhabi ideology and elaborates on the millions of Muslims who have relocated to the United States. Shea said, Earlier this year, Freedom Houses Center for Religious Freedom released a report based on a year-long study of the radically intolerant Wahhabi ideology contained in documents spread, published, or otherwise generated by the government of Saudi Arabia and found in the United States. Extremist Wahhabism is Saudi Arabias state religion; it is also the Saudi governments aim to propagate it and have it replace traditional and moderate interpretations of Islam worldwide, including within the United States.76 Another report, Saudi Arabias Curriculum of Intolerance, issued on May 23, 2006, by Freedom Houses Center for Religious Freedom analyzed the textbooks used by the Saudi Ministry of Education by their elementary and secondary students. These textbooks, according to Freedom House, advocate hatred of anyone, including Muslims, who reject the Wahhabi dogma. The 2006 report was created by Freedom Houses Center for Religious Freedom which collaborated with the Washington-based Institute for Gulf Affairs. Their study covered the textbooks used in Saudi Arabia and Saudi schools outside that country. The Institute for Gulf Affairs collected the books to be used in the study from families, teachers, and administrators associated with Saudi schools. Freedom House then had them translated. 77 Did USAID have anything to do with these textbooks? Nina Shea said, What is being taught today in Saudi public school textbooks about how Muslims should relate to other religious communities will poison the minds of a new generation of Saudis. Whatever changes have been made in the Saudi educational system, clearly more needs to be done. The Saudi government had revised all of their educational materials to eliminate all intolerant materials. But, according to the Freedom House report, the textbooks condemn and denigrate the majority of Sunni Muslims who reject the Wahhabi brand of Islam. The report also claims that the textbooks encourage Muslims to hate Christians, Jews and other unbelievers. The Saudi public school system has 25,000 schools, with about five million students. They also have academies in nineteen world capitals. One of these is located just outside of Washington in Alexandria, Virginia. They all use the same religious textbooks. Saudi Arabia also distributes its textbooks around the world to many Islamic schools. 78 Barack Obama, as I have previously written, was a CIA asset and attended Columbia University where Marxist apologist, Zbigniew Brzezinski, taught. Obama was born (1961), named, mentored, media puffed and financed into the White House by Soros, Rockefeller and other bankers. According to Wayne Madsen, Obamas mother, grandparents and other associates were also CIA. Former community organizer, Barack Hussein Obama, be he Muslim, Christian or a minion for Israel, is furthering the destruction of the U.S. economy per his agreement with the bankers when they financed his presidency. Citizens will blame the Muslim in the White House and take vengeance on U.S. Muslims as the destabilization continues. Obama, in 2008, committed his efforts to serving AIPACs agenda. He has links to Wrights Christian (liberation theology) church in Chicago and has publicly implied that he is Muslim. Is he just a CIA chameleon who alters his rhetoric for his current audience? Or is this a distracting Psy Ops designed to distract and divide U.S. citizens while the elite privately snicker. He is still a community organizer but on a much larger scale. Part of the operation has Republican Orly Taitz (b. 1960), the Jewish lawyer, dentist, and perhaps Mossad, along with Philip J. Berg, a Jewish Democrat are publicizing Obamas Kenyan birth, a detail that was openly announced in 2004 when he was running for an Illinois senate seat. 79 Taitz emigrated from the Soviet Union to Israel in 1981 where she attended Hebrew University. In 1987 she met and quickly married a software engineer visiting from California named Yosef Taitz and soon she was in the U.S. She believes that Israel should exterminate the Arabs. She is associated with AIPAC and believes that Obamas policies are a clear and present danger to Israel. 80 Ironically, in regard to the birth issue, Taitz said, When you allow somebody with allegiance to other nations to become president, thats extremely dangerous. 81 Good Heavens, save us from the arrogant, blatant elites and their useful idiots. Thats true for any political office. Three hundred members (69%) of the House of Representatives signed a letter addressed to Secretary of State Clinton affirming the unbreakable bond that exists between the U.S. and the State of Israel. Given that fact, I hardly think that the imposition of Sharia law is a viable threat. 82 As long as the National Menorah is prominently displayed at the White House 83 during the holidays instead of a Christian scene, I think U.S. citizens can be assured that Sharia law is not a threat. Scientists understand that monotonous patterns produce a stupor that renders people vulnerable to hypnosis. Certain low-level frequencies or unperceived waves exist in radio and television, the normal vehicle for mass hypnosis. It is the prime method of controlling huge populations. 84 On 9/11, everything shut down, except our television sets; we were extra attentive and traumatized, the most effective of any indoctrination process. Many still believe that Muslims perpetrated 9/11. Politicians, journalists, and media personalities are repeatedly expressing outrage over the possible construction of the Muslim community center two blocks from ground zero. This attention serves to ignite the emotions that we all felt that day, conveniently near the anniversary. It serves to re-establish the connection between 9/11 and the Muslims. It is a psychological operation of the most organized kind. The government has had almost a decade to reiterate their deceptive version of the event. Many nave people, not wanting to complicate their lives with the horrible reality, believe the government/medias first reports it is easier than acknowledging that theyve been so easily deceived. Former Speaker of the House, internationalist Newt Gingrich (CFR, NAFTA proponent), a recipient of millions from Sheldon Adelson, argues, One of our biggest mistakes in the aftermath of 9/11 was naming our response to the attacks the war on terror instead of accurately identifying radical Islamists (and the underlying ideology of radical Islamism) as the target of our campaign Radical Islamism is more than simply a religious belief. It is a comprehensive political, economic, and religious movement that seeks to impose ShariaIslamic lawupon all aspects of global society. 85 Madeleine Albright (CFR), while Secretary of State, said, If we have to use force, it is because we are America. We are the indispensable nation. 86 Over 170 million people were slaughtered by governments during the 20th century. Ten million died in World War I and fifty million died in World War II. Of those who were killed during World War II, almost 70% were civilians. This so-called collateral damage was a consequence of indiscriminant bombing by Britain and America. 87 Then there was Korea, Vietnam, the Gulf War, the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, a potential war in Iran and the unpublicized CIA wars. Yet, many citizens, rather than focusing on Americas brutality, claim that Islam is violent. The Muslims are not the enemy. They dont extort usury through the Federal Reserve; they arent manufacturing population-reducing vaccines and GMO seeds; they didnt devise our abortion laws (about fifty million dead); they didnt bail out the banks; they didnt create the Department of Homeland Security and impose the PATRIOT Act; they arent wiretapping our private conversations or scanning us at the airport; they didnt impose godless Communism on several countries and cause the death of millions of innocent people; they havent instituted the draconian healthcare laws; they have not orchestrated the nations economic crashes; they have not de-industrialized the nation and outsourced so many jobs; they havent wiped out the middle class by passing trade laws like NAFTA; 88 and they havent foreclosed on thousands of homes; they are not the reason thousands of people live in tent cities; they havent developed depleted uranium weapons. Instead of worrying about a mosque, consider whats going on behind the closed doors at the Federal Reserve, the Pentagon, the Senate and House chambers, the CFR, the State Department, the UN or dozens of other places. The Muslims didnt instigate the attacks on the USS Liberty or the USS Cole and they didnt orchestrate the highly organized attack in Manhattan on 9/11. People should be burning the 9/11 Commission Report or if they insist on burning a religious book, burn the Bible or the Talmud instead of the Quran. Most of the people who insist that the Quran is full of hate have never even seen the book. 1 The Synagogue of Satan, the Secret History of Jewish World Domination by Andrew Carrington Hitchcock, River Crest Publishing, Austin, Texas, 2007, p. 102 2 Liberty Tree, http://quotes.liberty-tree.ca/quotes_about/debt 3 Wartime Propaganda, World War I, The War To End All Wars, http://www.100megspop3.com/bark/Propaganda.html 4 Two Faces of Freemasonry by John Daniel, Day Publishing, Longview, Texas, 2007, pp. 99-100 5 Freedom House Statement on the Passing of George Field, Washington, DC, June 1, 2006, http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=70&release=384 6 OSS, the Secret History of Americas First Central Intelligence Agency by Richard Harris Smith, The Lyons Press, Guilford, Connecticut, 2005, pp. 1-2 7 What Was OSS Many OSS Records have recently been declassified: Report to the IWG on Previously Classified OSS Records, June, 2000, https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/oss/art03.htm, http://www.archives.gov/iwg/reports/june-2000.html 8 The Mind of Adolf Hitler, the Secret Wartime Report by Walter C. Langer, Basic Books. 1972, p. 4 9 Bushs New World Order: The Meaning Behind The Words by Major Bart R. Kessler, March 1997, pp. 7-9 10 American Statesmen: Secretaries of State from John Jay to Colin Powell edited by Edward S. Mihalkanin, Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut, 2004, p. 263 11 The Liberty Committee, American Sovereignty Restoration Act, H.R. 1146, Analysis by Herbert W. Titus, Senior Legal Advisor, http://www.thelibertycommittee.org/hr1146analysis.htm 12 The Supremacy Clause: a Reference Guide to the United States Constitution by Christopher R. Drahozal, Greenwood Publishing Group, Westport, Connecticut, 2004, p. 163 13 Safe For Democracy, The Secret Wars of the CIA by John Prados, 2006, Chapter 5, The Covert Legions 14 Note on U.S. Covert Actions, U.S. State Department 15 Age of Propaganda, the Everyday Use and Abuse of Persuasion by Anthony Pratkanis and Elliot Aronson, University of California, Henry Holt and Co., New York, 1992, pp. 9-10 16 Harry S. Truman Papers Staff Member and Office Files: Psychological Strategy Board Files, Dates: 1951-53, http://www.trumanlibrary.org/hstpaper/physc.htm 17 The CIAs Greatest Hits by Mark Zepezauer, Odonian Press, Tucson, Arizona, 2002, pp. 52-53 18 The CIA and Nazi War Criminals, National Security Archive Posts Secret CIA History Released Under Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 146, Edited by Tamara Feinstein, February 4, 2005, http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB146/index.htm 19 Jewish History, Jewish Religion, the Weight of Three Thousand Years by Israel Shahak, Pluto Press, London, England and Boulder, Colorado, 1994, p. vii 20 Harry S. Truman Library, the Recognition of Israel, http://www.trumanlibrary.org/whistlestop/study_collections/israel/large/index.php 21 The Controversy of Zion by Douglas Reed, Dolphin Press, Durban, South Africa, 1978, pp. 332-333 22 Target Patton: The Plot to Assassinate General George S. Patton By Robert K. Wilcox, Regnery Publishing, Inc., Washington, 2008, pp. 169-170, 193-194 23 After the Reich: the brutal history of the Allied occupation by Giles MacDonogh, Basic Books, New York, 2007, p. 26 24 The Origins of the Overclass by Steve Kangas, http://www.huppi.com/kangaroo/L-overclass.html 25 Washingtons Farewell Address 1796, http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/washing.asp 26 The Controversy of Zion by Douglas Reed, Dolphin Press, Durban, South Africa, 1978, p. 343 27 JFK, the CIA, Vietnam, and the Plot to Assassinate John F. Kennedy by L. Fletcher Prouty, Carol Publishing Group, 1992, pp. 70-71 28 The Secret History of the CIA by Joseph J. Trent, Carroll & Graf Publishers, New York, 2001, pp. 327-329 29 JFK, the CIA, Vietnam, and the Plot to Assassinate John F. Kennedy by L. Fletcher Prouty, Carol Publishing Group, 1992, pp. 70-73 30 Ibid, pp. 72-76 31 The Secret History of the CIA by Joseph J. Trent, Carroll & Graf Publishers, New York, 2001, pp. 327-329 32 Ibid, pp. 327-329 33 JFK, the CIA, Vietnam and the Plot to Assassinate John F. Kennedy by L. Fletcher Prouty, Carol Publishing Group, New York, 1992, pp. 72-76 34 Beyond Chutzpah, on the Misuse of Anti-Semitism and the Abuse of History by Norman G. Finkelstein, University of California Press, Berkeley, California, 2005, p. 66 35 Israels Sacred Terrorism by Livia Rokach, Association of Arab-American University Graduates, 1985, this book is composed of excerpts from Moshe Sharetts diary. He was Israels Prime Minister (1954-55) and Foreign Minister (1948-56), http://chss.montclair.edu/english/furr/essays/rokach.html 36 The Jewish Religion: Its Influence Today by Elizabeth Dilling, The Noontide Press, Costa Mesa, California 1983, pp. 38-39 37 They Dare to Speak Out, People and Institutions Confront Israels Lobby by Paul Findley, Lawrence Hill Books, Chicago, Illinois, 1989, pp. 114-116 Findley lost his bid for reelection when pro-Israel supporters financed his opponent, Dick Durbin 38 Ibid, pp. 114-116 39 Ibid, pp. 114-116 40 Our Israel-centric Foreign Policy by Paul Findley, The Huffington Post, June 9, 2005, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/paul-findley/our-israelcentric-foreign_b_2378.html 41 The CIA and the Media by Carl Bernstein, Rolling Stone, October 20, 1977 42 The Praetorian Guard, the U.S. Role in the New World Order by John Stockwell, South End Press, Boston, Massachusetts, 1991, p. 34 43 Profile: Taliban, History Commons, http://www.historycommons.org/entity.jsp?entity=taliban 44 How 6 million People Were killed in CIA secret wars against third world countries, http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article4068.htm 45 The War on Islam by Enver Masud, Madrasah Books, Arlington, Virginia, 2003, pp. 19-20 46 ASMA Society, Mission Statement, http://www.asmasociety.org/home/ 47 Our Supporters: U.S. Foundations, http://www.asmasociety.org/home/p_support.html 48 The Ms. Foundation for Women, History, http://ms.foundation.org/about_us/our-history 49 In Defense of the Law of Return by Letty Cottin Pogrebin, The Nation, December 22, 2003, 50 Campaign Contribution Search Letty Cottin Pogrebin http://www.newsmeat.com/fec/bystate_detail.php?st=NY&last=Pogrebin&first=Letty 51 Americans for Peace Now, http://fedupusa.wordpress.com/americans-for-peace-now/ 52 Fulbright Scholarship Program Information, http://exchanges.state.gov/education/fulbright/ffsb/ 53 Big Lies, the Right-Wing Propaganda Machine and How it Distorts the Truth by Joe Conason, Thomas Dunne Books, New York, 2003, p. 34 54 The High Priests of War, The Secret History of How Americas Neo-Conservative Trotskyites Came to Power and Orchestrated the War Against Iraq as the First Step in their Drive for Global Empire by Michael Collins Piper, American Free Press, Washington, DC, 2005, pp. 38, 45 55 Blinded by the Right, the Conscience of an Ex-Conservative by David Brock, Three Rivers Press, New York, 2002, p. 52 56 The Media Can Legally Lie, Project Censored by Liane Casten, Spring 2003, http://www.projectcensored.org/top-stories/articles/11-the-media-can-legally-lie/ 57 Open Secrets: Israeli Foreign and Nuclear Policies by Isral Shahak, Pluto Press, London, Chicago, Illinois, 1997, p. 54 58 Catastrophic Terrorism: Elements of a National Policy By Ashton B. Carter, John M. Deutch and Philip D. Zelikow, 1998, http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/visions/publication/terrorism.htm 59 9/11 Unveiled by Enver Masud, The Wisdom Fund, Arlington, Virginia, www.twf.org, 2008, pp. 9-10 60 Rebuilding Americas Defenses, Strategy, Forces and Resources for a New American Century, the Project for a New American Century, September 2000, p. 51 61 Osama bin Laden: Dead or Alive by David Ray Griffin, Olive Branch Press, Northampton, Massachusetts, 2009, p. 14 62 Ibid, pp. 2, 10 63 Port loses claim for asbestos removal, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey by Douglas Mcleod, Business Insurance, May 14, 2001 64 PNAC letter to George W. Bush, http://www.newamericancentury.org/Bushletter.htm 65 Ibid 66 A New Pearl Harbor, http://www.ifamericansknew.org/us_ints/nc-pilger.html 67 How Wide a War?, PBS, September 26, 2001, http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/terrorism/july-dec01/wide_war.html 68 West-Islamic World Dialogue, http://www2.weforum.org/en/initiatives/c100/index.html 69 Partial list of people associated with the Project for the New American Century, People identified as being connected to the PNAC because either they are listed on the organizations web site, or their names appear as authors/contributors on official PNAC documents. Information current to Dec. 2004, http://www.reasoned.org/e_PNAC2.htm 70 Freedom House Financial Statement, 2007, http://www.freedomhouse.org/uploads/special_report/72.pdf 71 Ibid 72 R. James Woolsey Booz Allen VP, http://findarticles.com/p/news-articles/analyst-wire/mi_8077/is_20100603/james-woolsey-vice-president-booz/ai_n53882161/ 73 Secret Rumsfeld Meeting To Implement North American Union, http://angelsfortruth.com/North%20American%20Union.html 74 Rebuilding: At What Cost and in whos Image by Rita J. King, Special to CorpWatch, August 16th, 2006 75 Curbing Government Contractor Abuse, San Diego Union-Tribune By Charlie Cray, September 30, 2005, http://www.fpif.org/fpifoped/1283 76 Testimony Of Nina Shea, Director Center for Religious Freedom, Freedom House Before The Committee on International Relations U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Africa, Global Human Rights and International Operations In Defense of Human Dignity: The 2005 International Religious Freedom Report November 15, 2005, p. 16 77 Freedom House Press Release, Revised Saudi Government Textbooks Still Demonize Christians, Jews, Non-Wahhabi Muslims and Other, Washington, DC, May 23, 2006, http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=70&release=379 78 Ibid 79 Kenyan-born Obama all set for US Senate, http://web.archive.org/web/20040627142700/eastandard.net/headlines/news26060403.htm 80 Orly Taitz: Obama policies are clear and present danger to Israel, The driving force behind the birther movement has found her star is rising in Israel by Benjamin L. Hartman, Haaretz, http://www.haaretz.com/news/orly-taitz-obama-policies-are-clear-and-present-danger-to-israel-1.282161 81 In Doubts Shadow, Soviet Jewish migr Orly Taitz is the Queen Bee of the Birther Movement, http://www.tabletmag.com/news-and-politics/11908/in-doubts-shadow/ 82 Nearly 300 Congress members declare commitment to unbreakable U.S.-Israel bond, Letter to Clinton underscores Biden remarks that there is no space when it comes to Israels security by Natasha Mozgovaya, http://www.haaretz.com/news/nearly-300-congress-members-declare-commitment-to-unbreakable-u-s-israel-bond-1.266652 83 Rahm Emanuel Lights National Menorah At White House, AP/ The Huffington Post, 12-13-09, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/12/13/rahm-emanuel-lights-natio_n_390552.html 84 Operation Mind Control by Walter Bowart, Dell Publishing Co., Inc., New York, 1978, 85 Newt Direct, No Mosque at Ground Zero, July 28, 2010, http://www.newt.org/newt-direct/no-mosque-ground-zero 86 Derailing Democracy, the America the Media Dont Want You to See by David McGowan, Common Courage Press, Monroe, Maine, 2000, p. 167 87 A Century of War: Lincoln, Wilson, and Roosevelt by John V. Denson, Ludwig von Mises Institute, Auburn, Alabama, 2006, p. 17 88 Bill Clinton and his NAFTA Baby Co-Conspirators, http://www.nolanchart.com/article368.htm Source: The Peoples Voice Related posts:Video: Clip from War by Deception (Film) The Obama Deception Number 1 on U.S. Google Trends Video: Power-hunger tempered by self-deception Noam Chomsky
Un anno di libri per augurarvi un ottimo 2011
Vi auguro un anno di salute di serenit, in cui non manchino felici letture.Questi 73 titoli che vi propongo hanno scandito i mesi del mio 2010, magari troverete suggestioni e curiosit per il vostro 2011 di lettori.GennaioPersuasione (Jane Austen) (grazie, Pino, per avermi invogliata alla rilettura) :-))Cornovaglia magica (Daphne du Maurier) :-))Strane creature (Tracy Chevalier) :-))L'apocalisse (Robert Schneider) :-)Come parlare di un libro senza averlo mai letto (Pierre Bayard) :-)Un'inquietante simmetria (Audrey Niffenegger) :-)Un romanzo politico (Laurence Sterne) (grazie, M
Celebrity Book Club: A List to End All Lists
1. The Dream Several years ago, while going through a box of books at my job, I came across Wake of the Perdido Star, a work of fiction authored by actor Gene Hackman and Daniel Lenihan. Intrigued, I peeped inside and read the following: The cook has told me there be salted cod and bits of cheese for supper, he said. If you like, Ill fetch you some. Speak to me not of food, for I am soon to die. I was so charmed by this discovery that I immediately founded a celebrity book club and emailed everyone I knew [actual excerpt]: I have decided to start acelebritybookclub. There is another celebrity book club, where celebrities read books. In thisclubwe will read celebrities books, but only if they are novels and full of magic and imagination. Like many enterprises I have undertaken with great verve and style, this club foundered due to my own delinquency; some loyal friends in fact read Wake of the Perdido Star (one of them really liked it), but we never met to discuss, act out dialogues, and drink beer like I promised in my invitation. And today, a thwarted virgin, Ive still yet to read a single celebrity novel in its entirety. I was reminded of this abandoned book club because the other night I had a dreamwhere I met James Franco and we forged a very deep sort of friendship and he started writing me long letters on a typewriter. If James Franco writes you long letters on a typewriter, I wondered in the dream, Is it cheating? Then I woke up with a visceral desire to read his fiction (this also feels like cheating). 2. Feeling Frisky Garth, in a humorous post last year, riffed off the news of Michael Ceras appearance in McSweeneys and alerted us to the trend of celebrity fiction in the pages of high-faluting publications. But I think this phenomenon has been with us for decades (maybe even centuries). There is something about celebrity novels that seems intrinsically against nature, like cats playing the piano. Celebrities are perfect the way they are. They dont need to be great writers in addition to being great thespians or singers (or shatteringly attractive, or whatever it is that made them famous). More importantly, the appearance of their books signifies a great injustice; celebrities, by virtue of their fame, get the opportunity to publish, an opportunity out of reach for most of us here in the great unwashed. Im not being fair, of course. Celebrities are people too, not vessels for our pleasure, and they should do what they please with their lives. If youre an artist, youre an artist, and your art will out. Also, writing fiction is hard, and many of us have tried to do it with excruciating results, which we keep quietly to ourselves. But all celebrity novels are not created equal. Some celebrities demonstrate (appear to, rather, since I cant say for sure) an admirable flexibility of medium and a great deal of facility with the written word. Furthermore, they seem to actually want to express themselves, and not simply to diversify their media portfolios. On the other hand, many celebrity-cum-authors seem to lack even passing familiarity with books, any books at all, and the habitual contents thereof; many enlist aides just to get the woeful sentences onto the page. When Lauren Conrad (she played Lauren on The Hills) writes a novel (three novels, in fact), it rouses my inner Marx. Or maybe Robespierre. With this in mind, inspired by the afterglow of my James Franco reverie, and remembering my foundered book club, Ive started this bibliography of celebrity fiction. The trend pieces about actor-writers (and Franco, always Franco) on sites like, for example, the ominously named Frisky, identify a paltry ten titles and call it a day. I think we can do better. 3. The List It turns out that tracking down celebrity novels is not all that easy. Some of the books, unsurprisingly, seem to have slunk off in shame. For now Im not counting childrens books, because most celebrities seem to have dabbled in childrens fiction (and pacifism) at some point in their careers. Im also not counting novels based on movies. Celebrities is defined here as famous people famous for things other than writing novelsIm casting the net wide. So who am I missing? And what did I get wrong? Pedro Almodovar. Fuego en las Entranas (1981), El Sueno de la Raison (1980). I would love find these, also to be able to read Spanish. One synopsis I found says that Fuego, a novella, is about a vengeful maxi pad magnate. Pamela Anderson. Star (2005), Star Struck (2005). Scantily clad autobiographical fiction. Lionel Barrymore. Mr. Cantonwine, A Moral Tale (1953). Sounds decidedly unsalacious. Glenn Beck. The Overton Window (2010). Basically this book is about David Plouffe or somebody being awakened from his shallow existence to the grim realities of PEOPLE WHO HATE FREEDOM. Glenn Beck apparently calls this a faction, i.e., fiction+fact. But the thing about neologisms is, is that you cant make one out of something that is already actually a word with its own meaning. Like, I might want to call this book a diction (you do the math), but I cant because it WOULDNT MAKE SENSE. Barbara Boxer and Mary-Rose Hayes. A Time to Run (2005). B.B. novelizes the liberal agenda. Marlo Brando, Donald Cammell, David Thomson. Fan Tan (2005). I think this countsBrando came up with the scenes and some of the premise, Cammell wrote the treatment, and then Thomson, after Brandos death, filled in the blanks for publication. The result had Louis Bayard asking, Why does a novel written in the early 1980s feel like something that had lain at the bottom of the sea for half a century prior? Jimmy Buffett. Where is Joe Merchant? (2003), A Salty Piece of Land (2006). Adventure, beaches, sea planes, presumably margaritas. Ed Burns, Jimmy Palmiotti, and Siju Thomas. The Dock Walloper (first in the series is 2008). Like the other celebrity comic book impresarios on this list, its hard to tell exactly what the celebritys role is in the process. Tim Burton. The Melancholy Death of Oyster Boy and Other Stories (1997). Gruesome yet whimsical vignettes and illustrations (Gorey-esque?). Bruce Campbell. Make Love the Bruce Campbell Way (2006). This doesnt sound like a novel, but it is. Naomi Campbell. Swan (1996). Famous supermodel gets blackmailed, has adventures. Yawn. Johnny Cash. Man in White (1986). I am learning so much compiling this list. Like that Johnny Cash wrote Biblical fiction about the Apostle Paul. Michael Cera. Pinecone in McSweeneys 30 (2009). I found what I think was an excerpt online and I was unmoved. Lynne Cheney. Sisters (1981). Holy crap. Before Lynne Cheney was busy penning epics like America: A Patriotic Primer (J is for Jefferson, E is for Extraordinary rendition), she wrote a sexy lesbian sex book. Lauren Conrad. L.A. Candy (2010), Sweet Little Lies (2010), and theres another one coming out in October. These purported fictions are about a girl who goes to Los Angeles to be in a reality show. The woman has published three books in one year! This is the shit of which rebellions are fomented. Wes Craven. The Fountain Society (1999). Cloning, secret military societies. Macauley Culkin. Junior (2007). Autobiographical fiction featuring stream-of-consciousness rants, quizzes, doodles, dad issues. Sounds awfully post-modern. Tony Curtis. Kid Andrew Cody and Julie Sparrow (1977). I cant find out what this was about, but it ended with a lawsuit against Curtis, brought by Doubleday. Bob Dylan. Tarantula (1965). Bob Dylan wrote an experimental novel, which was apparently so bad that he claimed he was coerced into writing it. Frederico Fellini and Milo Manara. Viaje a Tulum (1990). I really dont know if this counts, but it sounds cool. Its a script that Fellini abandoned, which was taken up by Manara and turned into a graphic novel, and I think Fellini added some of the art. There was a translated edition also, Trip to Tulum (1990). Carrie Fisher. Postcards from the Edge (1987), The Best Awful (2004). Hollywood, full of crazy characters and mad-cap adventures! James Franco. First there was Just Before the Black in the March 24, 2010, issue of Esquire. Not to jeopardize our budding relationship in my mind, but I did read this, and Im not really sure I understand what Franco was going for here. Disturbed young tough, first-person narrative, ruminations like I wish I was Mexican, or Hebrew, I mean Jewish, I mean Israeli, or Mexican Jewish, or Mexican Jewish gay. Its bizarre. Palo Alto, his collection of short stories, is coming this October. More restless youth in California. It got some good blurbs. This I will maybe pre-order. James Franco, would you like to be in my book club? Please email me to discuss. Newt Gingrich, William Fortschen, Albert Hanser. Gettysburg: A Novel of the Civil War (2003), Pearl Harbor: A Novel of December 8 (2007), Days of Infamy (2008), Grant Comes East: A Novel of the Civil War (2004), To Try Mens Souls: A Novel of George Washington (2009), Never Call Retreat: Lee and Grant, the Final Victory (2005), and 1945 (1995). Revisionist history with Newt! Sounds like a blast. Gene Hackman and Daniel Lenihan. Wake of the Perdido Star (1999). Adventures on the high seas. Hackman also appears to have a thing for historical fiction; he also wrote Escape from Andersonville (2008), a civil war novel, and Justice for None (2006), a 20th century noir (all with Lenihan). Ethan Hawke. The Hottest State (1996). Aspiring authors trying to make it in New York, have sex, talk about life. Ash Wednesdsay (2003). Young man goes AWOL, leaves pregnant girlfriend. Reunites with pregnant girlfriend, embarks on roadtrip. Elia Kazan. The Arrangement (1967). The Greek-American son of rug merchant struggles with success, adultery, pursuit of the American Dream. Don Draper? Kazan also wrote The Anatolian (1982), America America (1962), The Understudy (1974), The Assassins (1972), Acts of Love (1978), and Beyond the Aegean (1994). Hugh Laurie. The Gun Seller (1998). A zany spy novel, evidently with shades of Wodehouse. (Our own Andrew has already more extensively discussed the fiction of Laurie and his sometime on screen collaborator Stephen Fry) Janet Leigh. House of Destiny (1995). Rags to riches, bellboy to famous Hollywood producer. Dream Factory (2002), more Hollywood. John Lennon. A Spaniard in the Works (1965). Goofy stories filled with puns and spoonerisms. Courtney Love, Ai Yazawa, Misaho Kujiradou, D.J. Milky. Princess Ai (first 2004, several volumes thereafter). Courtney Love does manga. Michael Madsen. The Complete Poetic Works of Michael Madsen Vol. 1, 1995-2005 (2005). That Michael Madsen is a prolific enough poet to necessitate delineation by volume number is for some reason a serious mind-fuck. Why do some men ask for a beating?/You can see it in their faces,/You know they need it./I beat a guy/With a tire iron once Also, Burning in Paradise (1998). Drugs, sex, sadness. Steve Martin. Shopgirl (2000). A young woman sells gloves, feels adrift, does it with a rich man. Made for tepid and weird film, I thought. The Pleasure of My Company (2004). A guy with obsessive-compulsive disorder befriends single mother, hearts are warmed. Wasnt this the premise of As Good as it Gets? Willie Nelson and Mike Blakeley. A Tale Out of Luck (2008). Rustlers and so forth. Leonard Nimoy. You and I (1973), Will I Think of You? (1974), Come be With Me (1978), Warmed by Love (1983), A Lifetime of Love (2002). Nimoy also put out a book of photographs he took of plus-sized women in which he talked shit about the fashion industry. Leonard Nimoy is the best. Chuck Norris, Ken Abraham, Aaron Norris. The Justice Riders (2006) and A Threat to Justice (2007). Yes, Chuck Norris is a novelist. Life has lost all sense and meaning. Bill OReilly. Those Who Trespass: A Novel of Television and Murder (1998). There is something really dorky about writing thinly-disguised autobiographical mystery thrillers. Bill OReilly totally has a dozen more of these in his nightstand drawer. Sharon Osbourne. Revenge (2009). Two sisters hungry for fame, one will stop at nothing to get what she wants. I propose a fifty-year moratorium on the phrase will stop at nothing to get [x]. Katie Price. Angel (2006), Crystal (2007), Angel Uncovered (2008), Sapphire (2009), Paradise (2010). Quoth the author to The Guardian: Im not going to lie, I dont sit there with a typewriter and write it, of course I dont . . . I dont have time to do that. Sir Michael Redgrave. The Mountebanks Tale (1959). From the earlier generation of actor-turned-novelists. The one synopsis I could find (by the authors son Corin) makes this title sounds suspiciously literary for a celebrity novel. Carl Reiner. Enter Laughing (1958), NNNNN: A Novel (2006), Just Desserts: A Novellelah (2006). You know in the movie Wet Hot American Summer when Michael Showalter plays the wisecracking elderly emcee at the camp talent show, the one who says I went to camp so long ago that fucking Jesus Christ was my counsellor? I think these novels might sound something like that. Nicole Richie. The Truth About Diamonds (2005), Priceless (2010). Daughter of famous musician is rich, goes to parties, does drugs, does rehab, etc. etc. etc. What an imagination! Send this woman to the Iowa Writers Workshop. Joan Rivers and Jerrilyn Farmer. Murder at the Academy Awards (2009). There is nothing about this book I dont think I can learn from the title. Mickey Rooney. The Search for Sonny Skies (1994). Ugh, title puns. William Shatner. Jesus, so many. Tek Series (1990), Man OWar (1996), Quest for Tomorrow series (1997), Assorted Star Trek titles (with other authors). William Shatner appears to have written (or authorized, maybe) several thousand of these, with several other people. Wesley Snipes, Antoine Fuqua, Peter Milligan, Jeff Nentrup. After Dark #1 (2010). Wesley Snipes does comic books. Britney and Lynne Spears. A Mothers Gift (2001). Little Holly is a born singer. She gets a scholarship to a singing school, everyone makes fun of her homespun, she feels ashamed of her roots. Blah, blah, blah. Sylvester Stallone. Paradise Alley (1977). Apparently the book came before the movie, and Stallone wrote it. Courtney Thorne-Smith. Outside In (2007). The fictional heroine is a failed movie actress turned television star with a hyphenated last name. That is just lazy. Meg Tilly. Singing Songs (1994), Gemma (2006), Porcupine (2007), First Time (2008). These sound like really intense titles for young adults and grownups, all dealing with childhood sexual abuse and trauma. Ivana Trump. For Love Alone (1992), Free to Love (1993). Calling these books novels really seems like a stretch. Im not even sure that she changed the heroines name, and her own glamor shot is on the cover. Mae West. Sex (1926), The Drag (1927), Babe Gordon (1930), Diamond Lil (1932), Pleasure Man (1975). I think some of these are novelizations of plays that she wrote. Mae West sounds like kind of a badass. Gene Wilder. What is This Thing Called Love? (2010), My French Whore (2008), The Woman Who Wouldnt (2008). I find it bizarre and delightful that Gene Wilder writes short stories about love and historical romances featuring Chekhov. So thats what Ive got. I welcome your additions, revisions, and quibbles.
How to Talk About Books You Haven't Read
Umberto Eco insists that he read Pierre Bayard's book, How to Talk About Books You Haven't Read or at least skimmed it.In the July 26th edition of L'Espresso Ec
Martin Luther King, Jr
Early life Martin Luther King, Jr., was born on January 15, 1929, in Atlanta, Georgia. He was the son of the Reverend Martin Luther King, Sr. and Alberta Williams King. Kings father was born Michael King, and Martin Luther King, Jr., was originally named Michael King, Jr., until the family traveled to Europe in 1934 and visited Germany. His father soon changed both of their names to Martin Luther in honor of the German Protestant leader Martin Luther. He had an older sister, Willie Christine King, and a younger brother, Alfred Daniel Williams King. King sang with his church choir at the 1939 Atlanta premiere of the movie Gone with the Wind. King was originally skeptical of many Christianitys claims. Most striking, perhaps was his denial of the bodily resurrection of Jesus during Sunday school at the age of thirteen. From this point he stated, doubts began to spring forth unrelentingly. King married Coretta Scott, on June 18, 1953, on the lawn of her parents house in her hometown of Heiberger, Alabama. King and Scott had four children; Yolanda King, Martin Luther King III, Dexter Scott King, and Bernice King. King became pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama when he was twenty-five years old in 1954. Education Growing up in Atlanta, King attended Booker T. Washington High School. He skipped ninth and twelfth grade and entered Morehouse College at age fifteen without formally graduating from high school. In 1948, he graduated from Morehouse with a Bachelor of Arts degree in sociology, and enrolled in Crozer Theological Seminary in Chester, Pennsylvania, from which he graduated with a Bachelor of Divinity degree in 1951. King then began doctoral studies in systematic theology at Boston University and received his Doctor of Philosophy on June 5, 1955, with a dissertation on A Comparison of the Conceptions of God in the Thinking of Paul Tillich and Henry Nelson Wieman. A 1980s inquiry concluded portions of his dissertation had been plagiarized and he had acted improperly but that his dissertation still makes an intelligent contribution to scholarship. Influences Populist tradition and Black populism African American topics History Atlantic slave trade Maafa Slavery in the United States Military history of African Americans Jim Crow laws Redlining Civil Rights Movements 18961954 and 19551968 Afrocentrism Reparations for slavery Culture African American studies Neighborhoods Juneteenth Black Colleges and Universities Kwanzaa Art Museums Dance Literature Music Schools Religion Black church Black liberation theology Black theology Doctrine of Father Divine American Society of Muslims Nation of Islam Black Hebrew Israelites Political movements Pan-Africanism Nationalism Black Power Capitalism Conservatism Populism Leftism Black Panther Party Garveyism Civic and economic groups NAACP SCLC CORE SNCC NUL Rights organizations ASALH UNCF Thurgood Marshall College Fund NBCC NPHC TheLinks NCNW Sports Negro league baseball CIAA SIAC MEAC SWAC Ethnic sub-divisions Black Indians Gullah Igbo Languages English Gullah Louisiana Creole French African American Vernacular English Diaspora Liberia Nova Scotia France Sierra Leone Lists African Americans African-American firsts First mayors US state firsts Landmark African-American legislation African-American-related topics Topics related to Black and African people Category Portal This box: viewtalkedit Harry C. Boyte, a self-proclaimed populist, field secretary of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference and white civil rights activist describes an episode in his life that gives insight on some of Kings influences: My first encounter with deeper meanings of populism came when I was nineteen, working as a field secretary for the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in St. Augustine, Florida in 1964. One day I was caught by five men and a woman who were members of the Ku Klux Klan. They accused me of being a communist and a Yankee. I replied, Im no Yankee my family has been in the South since before the Revolution. And Im not a communist. Im a populist. I believe that blacks and poor whites should join to do something about the big shots who keep us divided. For a few minutes we talked about what such a movement might look like. Then they let me go. When he learned of the incident, Martin Luther King, head of SCLC, told me that he identified with the populist tradition and assigned me to organize poor whites. Thurman Civil rights leader, theologian, and educator Howard Thurman was an early influence on King. A classmate of Kings father at Morehouse College, Thurman mentored the young King and his friends. Thurmans missionary work had taken him abroad where he had met and conferred with Mahatma Gandhi. When he was a student at Boston University, King often visited Thurman, who was the dean of Marsh Chapel. Walter Fluker, who has studied Thurmans writings, has stated, I dont believe youd get a Martin Luther King, Jr. without a Howard Thurman. Gandhi and Rustin Inspired by Gandhis success with non-violent activism, King visited Gandhis birthplace in India in 1959, with assistance from the Quaker group the American Friends Service Committee. The trip to India affected King in a profound way, deepening his understanding of non-violent resistance and his commitment to Americas struggle for civil rights. In a radio address made during his final evening in India, King reflected, Since being in India, I am more convinced than ever before that the method of nonviolent resistance is the most potent weapon available to oppressed people in their struggle for justice and human dignity. In a real sense, Mahatma Gandhi embodied in his life certain universal principles that are inherent in the moral structure of the universe, and these principles are as inescapable as the law of gravitation. African American civil rights activist Bayard Rustin, who had studied Gandhis teachings, counseled King to dedicate himself to the principles of non-violence, served as Kings main advisor and mentor throughout his early activism, and was the main organizer of the 1963 March on Washington. Rustins open homosexuality, support of democratic socialism, and his former ties to the Communist Party USA caused many white and African-American leaders to demand King distance himself from Rustin. Sermons and speeches Main article: Sermons and speeches of Martin Luther King, Jr. Throughout his career of service, King wrote and spoke frequently, drawing on his experience as a preacher. His Letter from Birmingham Jail, written in 1963, is a passionate statement of his crusade for justice. On October 14, 1964, King became the youngest recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, which was awarded to him for leading non-violent resistance to end racial prejudice in the United States. Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955 Main articles: Montgomery Bus Boycott, Jim Crow laws#Public arena, Claudette Colvin, and Rosa Parks In March 1955, a fifteen-year-old school girl, Claudette Colvin, refused to give up her bus seat to a white man in compliance with the Jim Crow laws. King was on the committee from the Birmingham African-American community that looked into the case; Edgar Nixon and Clifford Durr decided to wait for a better case to pursue. On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat. The Montgomery Bus Boycott, urged and planned by Nixon and led by King, soon followed. The boycott lasted for 385 days, and the situation became so tense that Kings house was bombed. King was arrested during this campaign, which ended with a United States District Court ruling in Browder v. Gayle that ended racial segregation on all Montgomery public buses. Southern Christian Leadership Conference In 1957, King, Ralph Abernathy, and other civil rights activists founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). The group was created to harness the moral authority and organizing power of black churches to conduct non-violent protests in the service of civil rights reform. King led the SCLC until his death. In 1958, while signing copies of his book Stride Toward Freedom in Blumsteins department store on 125th Street, in Harlem, he was stabbed in the chest by Izola Curry, a deranged black woman with a letter opener, and narrowly escaped death. Gandhis nonviolent techniques were useful to Kings campaign to correct the civil rights laws implemented in Alabama. King applied non-violent philosophy to the protests organized by the SCLC. In 1959, he wrote The Measure of A Man, from which the piece What is Man?, an attempt to sketch the optimal political, social, and economic structure of society, is derived. His SCLC secretary and personal assistant in this period was Dora McDonald. The FBI, under written directive from Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, began telephone tapping King in the Fall of 1963. Concerned that allegations (of Communists in the SCLC), if made public, would derail the Administrations civil rights initiatives, Kennedy warned King to discontinue the suspect associations, and later felt compelled to issue the written directive authorizing the FBI to wiretap King and other leaders of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. J. Edgar Hoover feared Communists were trying to infiltrate the Civil Rights Movement, but when no such evidence emerged, the bureau used the incidental details caught on tape over the next five years in attempts to force King out of the preeminent leadership position. King believed that organized, nonviolent protest against the system of southern segregation known as Jim Crow laws would lead to extensive media coverage of the struggle for black equality and voting rights. Journalistic accounts and televised footage of the daily deprivation and indignities suffered by southern blacks, and of segregationist violence and harassment of civil rights workers and marchers, produced a wave of sympathetic public opinion that convinced the majority of Americans that the Civil Rights Movement was the most important issue in American politics in the early 1960s. King organized and led marches for blacks right to vote, desegregation, labor rights and other basic civil rights. Most of these rights were successfully enacted into the law of the United States with the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the 1965 Voting Rights Act. King and the SCLC applied the principles of nonviolent protest with great success by strategically choosing the method of protest and the places in which protests were carried out. There were often dramatic stand-offs with segregationist authorities. Sometimes these confrontations turned violent. Albany movement Main article: Albany movement The Albany Movement was a desegregation coalition formed in Albany, Georgia in November, 1961. In December King and the SCLC became involved. The movement mobilized thousands of citizens for a broad-front nonviolent attack on every aspect of segregation within the city and attracted nationwide attention. When King first visited on December 15, 1961, he had planned to stay a day or so and return home after giving counsel. But the following day he was swept up in a mass arrest of peaceful demonstrators, and he declined bail until the city made concessions. Those agreements, said King, were dishonored and violated by the city, as soon as he left town. King returned in July 1962, and was sentenced to forty-five days in jail or a $178 fine. He chose jail. Three days into his sentence, Chief Pritchett discreetly arranged for Kings fine to be paid and ordered his release. We had witnessed persons being kicked off lunch counter stools ejected from churches and thrown into jail But for the first time, we witnessed being kicked out of jail. After nearly a year of intense activism with few tangible results, the movement began to deteriorate. King requested a halt to all demonstrations and a Day of Penance to promote non-violence and maintain the moral high ground. Divisions within the black community and the canny, low-key response by local government defeated efforts. However, it was credited as a key lesson in tactics for the national civil rights movement. Birmingham campaign Main article: Birmingham campaign The Birmingham campaign was a strategic effort by the SCLC to promote civil rights for African Americans. Many of its tactics of Project C were developed by Rev. Wyatt Tee Walker, Executive Director of SCLC from 19601964. Based on actions in Birmingham, Alabama, its goal was to end the citys segregated civil and discriminatory economic policies. The campaign lasted for more than two months in the spring of 1963. To provoke the police into filling the citys jails to overflowing, King and black citizens of Birmingham employed nonviolent tactics to flout laws they considered unfair. King summarized the philosophy of the Birmingham campaign when he said, The purpose of direct action is to create a situation so crisis-packed that it will inevitably open the door to negotiation. Protests in Birmingham began with a boycott to pressure businesses to offer sales jobs and other employment to people of all races, as well as to end segregated facilities in the stores. When business leaders resisted the boycott, King and the SCLC began what they termed Project C, a series of sit-ins and marches intended to provoke arrest. After the campaign ran low on adult volunteers, SCLCs strategist, James Bevel, initiated the action and recruited the children for what became known as the Childrens Crusade. During the protests, the Birmingham Police Department, led by Eugene Bull Connor, used high-pressure water jets and police dogs to control protesters, including children. Not all of the demonstrators were peaceful, despite the avowed intentions of the SCLC. In some cases, bystanders attacked the police, who responded with force. King and the SCLC were criticized for putting children in harms way. By the end of the campaign, Kings reputation improved immensely, Connor lost his job, the Jim Crow signs in Birmingham came down, and public places became more open to blacks. Augustine and Selma King and SCLC were also driving forces behind the protest in St. Augustine, Florida, in 1964. The movement engaged in nightly marches in the city met by white segregationists who violently assaulted them. Hundreds of the marchers were arrested and jailed. King and the SCLC joined forces with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in Selma, Alabama, in December 1964, where SNCC had been working on voter registration for several months. A sweeping injunction issued by a local judge barred any gathering of 3 or more people under sponsorship of SNCC, SCLC, or DCVL, or with the involvement of 41 named civil rights leaders. This injunction temporarily halted civil rights activity until King defied it by speaking at Brown Chapel on January 2 1965. March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom March on Washington, 1963 Main article: March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom King, representing SCLC, was among the leaders of the so-called Big Six civil rights organizations who were instrumental in the organization of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, which took place on August 28, 1963. The other leaders and organizations comprising the Big Six were: Roy Wilkins from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; Whitney Young, National Urban League; A. Philip Randolph, Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; John Lewis, SNCC; and James L. Farmer, Jr. of the Congress of Racial Equality. The primary logistical and strategic organizer was Kings colleague Bayard Rustin. For King, this role was another which courted controversy, since he was one of the key figures who acceded to the wishes of President John F. Kennedy in changing the focus of the march. Kennedy initially opposed the march outright, because he was concerned it would negatively impact the drive for passage of civil rights legislation, but the organizers were firm that the march would proceed. The march originally was conceived as an event to dramatize the desperate condition of blacks in the southern United States and a very public opportunity to place organizers concerns and grievances squarely before the seat of power in the nations capital. Organizers intended to excoriate and then challenge the federal government for its failure to safeguard the civil rights and physical safety of civil rights workers and blacks, generally, in the South. However, the group acquiesced to presidential pressure and influence, and the event ultimately took on a far less strident tone. As a result, some civil rights activists felt it presented an inaccurate, sanitized pageant of racial harmony; Malcolm X called it the Farce on Washington, and members of the Nation of Islam were not permitted to attend the march. King is perhaps most famous for his I Have a Dream speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. audio recording of Kings I Have a Dream speech The march did, however, make specific demands: an end to racial segregation in public school; meaningful civil rights legislation, including a law prohibiting racial discrimination in employment; protection of civil rights workers from police brutality; a $2 minimum wage for all workers; and self-government for Washington, D.C., then governed by congressional committee. Despite tensions, the march was a resounding success. More than a quarter million people of diverse ethnicities attended the event, sprawling from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial onto the National Mall and around the reflecting pool. At the time, it was the largest gathering of protesters in Washingtons history. Kings I Have a Dream speech electrified the crowd. It is regarded, along with Abraham Lincolns Gettysburg Address and Franklin D. Roosevelts Infamy Speech, as one of the finest speeches in the history of American oratory. Stance on compensation King giving a lecture on March 26, 1964 Martin Luther King Jr. expressed a view that black Americans, as well as other disadvantaged Americans, should be compensated for historical wrongs. In an interview conducted for Playboy in 1965, he said that granting black Americans only equality could not realistically close the economic gap between them and whites. King said that he did not seek a full restitution of wages lost to slavery, which he believed impossible, but proposed a government compensatory program of US$50 billion over ten years to all disadvantaged groups. He posited that the money spent would be more than amply justified by the benefits that would accrue to the nation through a spectacular decline in school dropouts, family breakups, crime rates, illegitimacy, swollen relief rolls, rioting and other social evils. He presented this idea as an application of the common law regarding settlement of unpaid labor but clarified that he felt that the money should not be spent exclusively on blacks. He stated, It should benefit the disadvantaged of all races. Bloody Sunday, 1965 Main article: Selma to Montgomery marches King, James Bevel, and the SCLC, in partial collaboration with SNCC, attempted to organize a march from Selma to the state capital of Montgomery, for March 7, 1965. The first attempt to march on March 7 was aborted because of mob and police violence against the demonstrators. This day has since become known as Bloody Sunday. Bloody Sunday was a major turning point in the effort to gain public support for the Civil Rights Movement, the clearest demonstration up to that time of the dramatic potential of Kings nonviolence strategy. King, however, was not present. After meeting with President Lyndon B. Johnson, he decided not to endorse the march, but it was carried out against his wishes and without his presence on March 7 by the director of the Selma Movement, James Bevel, and by local civil rights leaders. Footage of police brutality against the protesters was broadcast extensively and aroused national public outrage. King next attempted to organize a march for March 9. The SCLC petitioned for an injunction in federal court against the State of Alabama; this was denied and the judge issued an order blocking the march until after a hearing. Nonetheless, King led marchers on March 9 to the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, then held a short prayer session before turning the marchers around and asking them to disperse so as not to violate the court order. The unexpected ending of this second march aroused the surprise and anger of many within the local movement. The march finally went ahead fully on March 25. At the conclusion of the march and on the steps of the state capitol, King delivered a speech that has become known as How Long, Not Long. Chicago, 1966 King with President Lyndon Johnson in 1966 In 1966, after several successes in the South, King and others in the civil rights organizations tried to spread the movement to the North, with Chicago as its first destination. King and Ralph Abernathy, both from the middle classes, moved into the slums of North Lawndale on the west side of Chicago as an educational experience and to demonstrate their support and empathy for the poor. The SCLC formed a coalition with CCCO, Coordinating Council of Community Organizations, an organization founded by Albert Raby, and the combined organizations efforts were fostered under the aegis of The Chicago Freedom Movement. During that spring, several dual white couple/black couple tests on real estate offices uncovered the practice (now banned in the U.S.) of racial steering. These tests revealed the racially selective processing of housing requests by couples who were exact matches in income, background, number of children, and other attributes, with the only difference being their race. The needs of the movement for radical change grew, and several larger marches were planned and executed, including those in the following neighborhoods: Bogan, Belmont Cragin, Jefferson Park, Evergreen Park (a suburb southwest of Chicago), Gage Park and Marquette Park, among others. In Chicago, Abernathy later wrote that they received a worse reception than they had in the South. Their marches were met by thrown bottles and screaming throngs, and they were truly afraid of starting a riot. Kings beliefs mitigated against his staging a violent event, and he negotiated an agreement with Mayor Richard J. Daley to cancel a march in order to avoid the violence that he feared would result from the demonstration. King, who received death threats throughout his involvement in the civil rights movement, was hit by a brick during one march but continued to lead marches in the face of personal danger. When King and his allies returned to the south, they left Jesse Jackson, a seminary student who had previously joined the movement in the South, in charge of their organization. Jackson continued their struggle for civil rights by organizing the Operation Breadbasket movement that targeted chain stores that did not deal fairly with blacks. Opposition to the Vietnam War Starting in 1965, King began to express doubts about the United States role in the Vietnam War. In an April 4, 1967 appearance at the New York City Riverside Churchxactly one year before his deathing delivered a speech titled Beyond Vietnam. In the speech, he spoke strongly against the U.S.s role in the war, insisting that the U.S. was in Vietnam to occupy it as an American colony and calling the U.S. government the greatest purveyor of violence in the world today. He also argued that the country needed larger and broader moral changes: A true revolution of values will soon look uneasily on the glaring contrast of poverty and wealth. With righteous indignation, it will look across the seas and see individual capitalists of the West investing huge sums of money in Asia, Africa and South America, only to take the profits out with no concern for the social betterment of the countries, and say: This is not just. King also was opposed to the Vietnam War on the grounds that the war took money and resources that could have been spent on social welfare services like the War on Poverty. The United States Congress was spending more and more on the military and less and less on anti-poverty programs at the same time. He summed up this aspect by saying, A nation that continues year after year to spend more money on military defense than on programs of social uplift is approaching spiritual death. Many white southern segregationists vilified King; moreover, this speech soured his relationship with many members of the mainstream media. Life magazine called the speech demagogic slander that sounded like a script for Radio Hanoi, and The Washington Post declared that King had diminished his usefulness to his cause, his country, his people. King stated that North Vietnam did not begin to send in any large number of supplies or men until American forces had arrived in the tens of thousands. King also criticized the United States resistance to North Vietnams land reforms. He accused the United States of having killed a million Vietnamese, mostly children. The speech was a reflection of Kings evolving political advocacy in his later years, which paralleled the teachings of the progressive Highlander Research and Education Center, with whom King was affiliated. King began to speak of the need for fundamental changes in the political and economic life of the nation. Towards the time of his murder, King more frequently expressed his opposition to the war and his desire to see a redistribution of resources to correct racial and economic injustice. Though his public language was guarded, so as to avoid being linked to communism by his political enemies, in private he sometimes spoke of his support for democratic socialism. In one speech, he stated that something is wrong with capitalism and claimed, There must be a better distribution of wealth, and maybe America must move toward a democratic socialism. King had read Marx while at Morehouse, but while he rejected traditional capitalism, he also rejected Communism because of its materialistic interpretation of history that denied religion, its ethical relativism, and its political totalitarianism. King also stated in his Beyond Vietnam speech that true compassion is more than flinging a coin to a beggar.it comes to see that an edifice which produces beggars needs restructuring. King quoted a United States official, who said that, from Vietnam to South America to Latin America, the country was on the wrong side of a world revolution. King condemned Americas alliance with the landed gentry of Latin America, and said that the United States should support the shirtless and barefoot people in the Third World rather than suppressing their attempts at revolution. King spoke at an Anti-Vietnam demonstration where he also brought up issues of civil rights and the draft. I have not urged a mechanical fusion of the civil rights and peace movements. There are people who have come to see the moral imperative of equality, but who cannot yet see the moral imperative of world brotherhood. I would like to see the fervor of the civil-rights movement imbued into the peace movement to instill it with greater strength. And I believe everyone has a duty to be in both the civil-rights and peace movements. But for those who presently choose but one, I would hope they will finally come to see the moral roots common to both. In 1967, King gave another speech, in which he lashed out against what he called the cruel irony of American blacks fighting and dying for a country which treated them as second class citizens: We were taking the young black men who had been crippled by our society and sending them eight thousand miles away to guarantee liberties which they had not found in Southwest Georgia and East Harlem. We have been repeatedly faced with the cruel irony of watching Negro and white boys on TV screens as they kill and die together for a nation that has been unable to seat them in the same schools Poor Peoples Campaign, 1968 Main article: Poor Peoples Campaign In 1968, King and the SCLC organized the Poor Peoples Campaign to address issues of economic justice. The campaign culminated in a march on Washington, D.C. demanding economic aid to the poorest communities of the United States. King traveled the country to assemble a multiracial army of the poor that would march on Washington to engage in nonviolent civil disobedience at the Capitol until Congress created a bill of rights for poor Americans. However, the campaign was not unanimously supported by other leaders of the Civil Rights Movement. Rustin resigned from the march stating that the goals of the campaign were too broad, the demands unrealizable, and thought these campaigns would accelerate the backlash and repression on the poor and the black. Throughout his participation in the civil rights movement, King was criticized by many groups. This included opposition by more militant blacks and such prominent critics as Nation of Islam member Malcolm X. Stokely Carmichael was a separatist and disagreed with Kings plea for racial integration because he considered it an insult to a uniquely African-American culture. Omali Yeshitela urged Africans to remember the history of violent European colonization and how power was not secured by Europeans through integration, but by violence and force. King and the SCLC called on the government to invest in rebuilding Americas cities. He felt that Congress had shown hostility to the poor by spending military funds with alacrity and generosity. He contrasted this with the situation faced by poor Americans, claiming that Congress had merely provided poverty funds with miserliness. His vision was for change that was more revolutionary than mere reform: he cited systematic flaws of racism, poverty, militarism and materialism, and argued that reconstruction of society itself is the real issue to be faced. Assassination Main article: Martin Luther King, Jr. assassination The Lorraine Motel, where King was assassinated, is now the site of the National Civil Rights Museum. On March 29, 1968, King went to Memphis, Tennessee in support of the black sanitary public works employees, represented by AFSCME Local 1733, who had been on strike since March 12 for higher wages and better treatment. In one incident, black street repairmen received pay for two hours when they were sent home because of bad weather, but white employees were paid for the full day. On April 3, King addressed a rally and delivered his Ive Been to the Mountaintop address at Mason Temple, the world headquarters of the Church of God in Christ. Kings flight to Memphis had been delayed by a bomb threat against his plane. In the close of the last speech of his career, in reference to the bomb threat, King said the following: And then I got to Memphis. And some began to say the threats, or talk about the threats that were out. What would happen to me from some of our sick white brothers? Well, I dont know what will happen now. Weve got some difficult days ahead. But it doesnt matter with me now. Because Ive been to the mountaintop. And I dont mind. Like anybody, I would like to live a long life. Longevity has its place. But Im not concerned about that now. I just want to do Gods will. And Hes allowed me to go up to the mountain. And Ive looked over. And Ive seen the promised land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight, that we, as a people, will get to the promised land. And Im happy, tonight. Im not worried about anything. Im not fearing any man. Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord. King was booked in room 306 at the Lorraine Motel, owned by Walter Bailey, in Memphis. The Reverend Ralph Abernathy, Kings close friend and colleague who was present at the assassination, swore under oath to the United States House Select Committee on Assassinations that King and his entourage stayed at room 306 at the Lorraine Motel so often it was known as the King-Abernathy suite. According to Jesse Jackson, who was present, Kings last words on the balcony prior to his assassination were spoken to musician Ben Branch, who was scheduled to perform that night at an event King was attending: Ben, make sure you play Take My Hand, Precious Lord in the meeting tonight. Play it real pretty. Then, at 6:01 p.m., April 4, 1968, a shot rang out as King stood on the motels second floor balcony. The bullet entered through his right cheek smashing his jaw and then traveled down his spinal cord before lodging in his shoulder. Abernathy heard the shot from inside the motel room and ran to the balcony to find King on the floor. The events following the shooting have been disputed, as some people have accused Jackson of exaggerating his response. After emergency chest surgery, King was pronounced dead at St. Josephs Hospital at 7:05 p.m. According to biographer Taylor Branch, Kings autopsy revealed that though only thirty-nine years old, he had the heart of a sixty-year-old man, perhaps a result of the stress of thirteen years in the civil rights movement. The assassination led to a nationwide wave of riots in more than 100 cities. Presidential nominee Robert Kennedy was on his way to Indianapolis for a campaign rally when he was informed of Kings death. He gave a short speech to the gathering of supporters informing them of the tragedy and asking them to continue Kings idea of non-violence. President Lyndon B. Johnson declared April 7 a national day of mourning for the civil rights leader. Vice-President Hubert Humphrey attended Kings funeral on behalf of Lyndon B. Johnson, as there were fears that Johnsons presence might incite protests and perhaps violence. At his widows request, Kings last sermon at Ebenezer Baptist Church was played at the funeral. It was a recording of his Drum Major sermon, given on February 4, 1968. In that sermon, King made a request that at his funeral no mention of his awards and honors be made, but that it be said that he tried to feed the hungry, clothe the naked, be right on the [Vietnam] war question, and love and serve humanity. His good friend Mahalia Jackson sang his favorite hymn, Take My Hand, Precious Lord, at the funeral. The city of Memphis quickly settled the strike on terms favorable to the sanitation workers. Two months after Kings death, escaped convict James Earl Ray was captured at London Heathrow Airport while trying to leave the United Kingdom on a false Canadian passport in the name of Ramon George Sneyd on his way to white-ruled Rhodesia. Ray was quickly extradited to Tennessee and charged with Kings murder. He confessed to the assassination on March 10, 1969, though he recanted this confession three days later. On the advice of his attorney Percy Foreman, Ray pleaded guilty to avoid a trial conviction and thus the possibility of receiving the death penalty. Ray was sentenced to a 99-year prison term. Ray fired Foreman as his attorney, from then on derisively calling him Percy Fourflusher. He claimed a man he met in Montreal, Quebec with the alias Raoul was involved and that the assassination was the result of a conspiracy. He spent the remainder of his life attempting (unsuccessfully) to withdraw his guilty plea and secure the trial he never had. On June 10, 1977, shortly after Ray had testified to the House Select Committee on Assassinations that he did not shoot King, he and six other convicts escaped from Brushy Mountain State Penitentiary in Petros, Tennessee. They were recaptured on June 13 and returned to prison. Allegations of conspiracy Rays lawyers maintained he was a scapegoat similar to the way that alleged John F. Kennedy assassin Lee Harvey Oswald is seen by conspiracy theorists. One of the claims used to support this assertion is that Rays confession was given under pressure, and he had been threatened with the death penalty. Ray was a thief and burglar, but he had no record of committing violent crimes with a weapon. Those suspecting a conspiracy in the assassination point out the two separate ballistics tests conducted on the Remington Gamemaster recovered by police had neither conclusively proved Ray had been the killer nor that it had even been the murder weapon. Moreover, witnesses surrounding King at the moment of his death say the shot came from another location, from behind thick shrubbery near the rooming house which had been inexplicably cut away in the days following the assassination and not from the rooming house window. Martin Luther Kings & Coretta Scott Kings tomb, located on the grounds of the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historic Site Developments In 1997, Kings son Dexter Scott King met with Ray, and publicly supported Rays efforts to obtain a new trial. Two years later, Coretta Scott King, Kings widow, along with the rest of Kings family, won a wrongful death claim against Loyd Jowers and other unknown co-conspirators. Jowers claimed to have received $100,000 to arrange Kings assassination. The jury of six whites and six blacks found Jowers guilty and that government agencies were party to the assassination. William F. Pepper represented the King family in the trial. King biographer David Garrow disagrees with William F. Peppers claims that the government killed King. He is supported by author Gerald Posner who has researched and written about the assassination. In 2000, the United States Department of Justice completed the investigation about Jowers claims but did not find evidence to support allegations about conspiracy. The investigation report recommended no further investigation unless some new reliable facts are presented. The New York Times reported a church minister, Rev. Ronald Denton Wilson, claimed his father, Henry Clay Wilsonot James Earl Rayssassinated Martin Luther King, Jr. He stated, It wasnt a racist thing; he thought Martin Luther King was connected with communism, and he wanted to get him out of the way. Kings friend and colleague, James Bevel, disputed the argument that Ray acted alone, stating, There is no way a ten-cent white boy could develop a plan to kill a million-dollar black man. In 2004, Jesse Jackson, who was with King at the time of his death, noted: The fact is there were saboteurs to disrupt the march. And within our own organization, we found a very key person who was on the government payroll. So infiltration within, saboteurs from without and the press attacks. I will never believe that James Earl Ray had the motive, the money and the mobility to have done it himself. Our government was very involved in setting the stage for and I think the escape route for James Earl Ray. Riots After Kings assassination riots broke out in Chicago, Boston, Detroit, and Washington. Black leader James Farmer, Jr. and others called for non-violent action. Dr. King would be greatly distressed to find that his blood had triggered off bloodshed and disorder I think instead the nation should be quiet; black and white, and we should be in a prayerful mood, which would be in keeping with his life. We should make that kind of dedication and commitment to the goals which his life served to solving the domestic problems. Thats the memorial, thats the kind of memorial we should build for him. Its just not appropriate for there to be violent retaliations, and that kind of demonstration in the wake of the murder of this pacifist and man of peace. Stokely Carmichael called for immediate forceful action. White America killed Dr. King last night. She made a whole lot easier for a whole lot of black people today. There no longer needs to be intellectual discussions, black people know that they have to get guns. White America will live to cry that she killed Dr. King last night. It would have been better if she had killed Rap Brown and/or Stokley Carmichael, but when she killed Dr. King, she lost. FBI and wiretapping Allegations of Communist connections J. Edgar Hoover, the director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, for years had been paranoid about potential influence of communists in social movements such as labor unions and civil rights. Hoover directed the FBI to track King in 1957, and the SCLC as it was established (it did not have a full-time executive director until 1960); its investigations were largely superficial until 1962, when it learned that one of Kings most trusted advisers was New York City lawyer Stanley Levison. The FBI found Levison had been involved with the Communist Party USA. The FBI had observed his alienation from the Party leadership, but it feared he had taken a low profile in order to work as an agent of influence in order to manipulate King, a view it continued to hold despite its own reports in 1963 that Levison had left the Party. Another King lieutenant, Hunter Pitts ODell, was also linked to the Communist Party by sworn testimony before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC). However, by 1976 the FBI had acknowledged that it had not obtained any evidence that King himself or the SCLC were actually involved with any communist organizations. The Bureau received authorization to proceed with wiretapping from Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy in the Fall of 1963 and informed President John F. Kennedy, both of whom unsuccessfully tried to persuade King to dissociate himself from Levison. Although Robert Kennedy only gave written approval for limited wiretapping of Kings phones on a trial basis, for a month or so, Hoover extended the clearance so his men were unshackled to look for evidence in any areas of Kings life they deemed worthy. The Bureau placed wiretaps on Levisons and Kings home and office phones, and bugged Kings rooms in hotels as he traveled across the country. For his part, King adamantly denied having any connections to Communism, stating in a 1965 Playboy interview that there are as many Communists in this freedom movement as there are Eskimos in Florida, and claiming that Hoover was following the path of appeasement of political powers in the South and that his concern for communist infiltration of the civil rights movement was meant to aid and abet the salacious claims of southern racists and the extreme right-wing elements. Hoover did not believe his pledge of innocence and replied by saying that King was the most notorious liar in the country. After King gave his I Have A Dream speech during the March on Washington on August 28, 1963, the FBI described King as the most dangerous and effective Negro leader in the country. In December 1963, FBI officials who were gathered to a special conference alleged that King was knowingly, willingly and regularly cooperating with and taking guidance from communists whose long-term strategy was to create of a Negro-labor coalition detrimental to American security. The attempt to prove that King was a Communist was related to the feeling of many segregationists that blacks in the South were happy with their lot but had been stirred up by communists and outside agitators. The civil rights movement arose from activism within the black community dating back to before World War I. Levison did have ties with the Communist Party in various business dealings, but the FBI refused to believe its own intelligence bureau reports that Levison was no longer associated in that capacity. In response to the FBIs comments regarding communists directing the civil rights movement, King said that the Negro revolution is a genuine revolution, born from the same womb that produces all massive social upheavalshe womb of intolerable conditions and unendurable situations. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X, March 26, 1964. Allegations of adultery Having concluded that King was dangerous due to communist infiltration, the focus of the Bureaus investigations shifted to attempting to discredit King through revelations regarding his private life. FBI surveillance of King, some of it since made public, attempted to demonstrate that he also engaged in numerous extramarital affairs. Further remarks on Kings lifestyle were made by several prominent officials, such as Lyndon Johnson, who once said that King was a hypocritical preacher. Ralph Abernathy, a close associate of Kings, stated in his 1989 autobiography And the Walls Came Tumbling Down that King had a weakness for women. In a later interview, Abernathy said he only wrote the term womanizing, and did not specifically say King had extramarital sex. Kings biographer David Garrow detailed what he called Kings compulsive sexual athleticism. Garrow wrote about numerous extramarital affairs, including one with a woman King saw almost daily. According to Garrow, that relationship, rather than his marriage, increasingly became the emotional centerpiece of Kings life, but it did not eliminate the incidental couplings that were a commonplace of Kings travels. King explained his extramarital affairs as a form of anxiety reduction. Garrow noted that Kings promiscuity was the cause of painful and overwhelming guilt. The FBI distributed reports regarding such affairs to the executive branch, friendly reporters, potential coalition partners and funding sources of the SCLC, and Kings family. The Bureau also sent anonymous letters to King threatening to reveal information if he did not cease his civil rights work. One anonymous letter sent to King just before he received the Nobel Peace Prize read, in part, The American public, the church organizations that have been helpingrotestants, Catholics and Jews will know you for what you aren evil beast. So will others who have backed you. You are done. King, there, is only one thing left for you to do. You know what it is. You have just 34 days in which to do (this exact number has been selected for a specific reason, it has definite practical significant [sic]). You are done. There is but one way out for you. You better take it before your filthy fraudulent self is bared to the nation. King interpreted this as encouragement for him to commit suicide, although William Sullivan, head of the Domestic Intelligence Division at the time, argued that it may have only been intended to convince Dr. King to resign from the SCLC. King refused to give in to the FBIs threats. On January 31, 1977, United States district Judge John Lewis Smith, Jr., ordered all known copies of the recorded audiotapes and written transcripts resulting from the FBIs electronic surveillance of King between 1963 and 1968 to be held in the National Archives and sealed from public access until 2027. Across from the Lorraine Motel, next to the rooming house in which James Earl Ray was staying, was a fire station. Police officers were stationed in the fire station to keep King under surveillance. Using papered-over windows with peepholes cut into them, the agents were watching the scene while Martin Luther King was shot. Immediately following the shooting, officers rushed out of the station to the motel, and Marrell McCollough, an undercover police officer, was the first person to administer first-aid to King. The antagonism between King and the FBI, the lack of an all points bulletin to find the killer, and the police presence nearby have led to speculation that the FBI was involved in the assassination. Legacy From the Gallery of 20th Century Martyrs at Westminster Abbey. to r. Mother Elizabeth of Russia, Rev. Martin Luther King, Archbishop Oscar Romero and Pastor Dietrich Bonhoeffer Kings main legacy was to secure progress on civil rights in the United States, which has enabled more Americans to reach their potential. He is frequently referenced as a human rights icon today. His name and legacy have often been invoked since his death as people have debated his likely position on various modern political issues. On the international scene, Kings legacy included influences on the Black Consciousness Movement and Civil Rights Movement in South Africa. Kings work was cited by and served as an inspiration for Albert Lutuli, another black Nobel Peace prize winner who fought for racial justice in that country. The day following Kings assassination, school teacher Jane Elliott conducted her first Blue Eyes/Brown Eyes exercise with her class of elementary school students in Riceville, Iowa. Her purpose was to help them understand Kings death as it related to racism, something they little understood from having lived in a predominately white community. Kings wife, Coretta Scott King, followed her husbands footsteps and was active in matters of social justice and civil rights until her death in 2006. The same year that Martin Luther King was assassinated, Mrs. King established the King Center in Atlanta, Georgia, dedicated to preserving his legacy and the work of championing nonviolent conflict resolution and tolerance worldwide. His son, Dexter King, currently serves as the centers chairman. Daughter Yolanda King is a motivational speaker, author and founder of Higher Ground Productions, an organization specializing in diversity training. There are opposing views even within the King family regarding the slain civil rights leaders religious and political views about gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people. Kings widow Coretta said publicly that she believed her husband would have supported gay rights. However, his daughter Bernice believed he would have been opposed to gay marriage. The King Center includes discrimination, and lists homophobia as one of its examples, in its list of The Triple Evils that should be opposed. In 1980, the Department of Interior designated Kings boyhood home in Atlanta and several nearby buildings the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historic Site. In 1996, United States Congress authorized the Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity to establish a foundation to manage fund raising and design of a Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial on the Mall in Washington, DC. King was a member of Alpha Phi Alpha, the first intercollegiate Greek-letter fraternity established by and for African Americans. King was the first African American honored with his own memorial in the National Mall area and the first non-President to be commemorated in such a way. The sculptor chosen was Lei Yixin. The King Memorial will be administered by the National Park Service. Kings life and assassination inspired many artistic works. A 1976 Broadway production, I Have a Dream, was directed by Robert Greenwald and starred Billy Dee Williams as King. In spring of 2006, a stage play about King was produced in Beijing, China with King portrayed by Chinese actor, Cao Li. The play was written by Stanford University professor, Clayborne Carson. King spoke earlier about what people should remember him for if they are around for his funeral. He said rather than his awards and where he went to school, people should talk about how he fought peacefully for justice.: Id like somebody to mention that day that Martin Luther King Jr. tried to give his life serving others. Id like for somebody to say that day that Martin Luther King Jr. tried to love somebody. I want you to say that day that I tried to be right on the war question. I want you to be able to say that day that I did try to feed the hungry. I want you to be able to say that day that I did try in my life to clothe those who were naked. I want you to say on that day that I did try in my life to visit those who were in prison. And I want you to say that I tried to love and serve humanity. Yes, if you want to say that I was a drum major. Say that I was a drum major for justice. Say that I was a drum major for peace. I was a drum major for righteousness. And all of the other shallow things will not matter.1968 Year In Review, UPI.com Martin Luther King, Jr. Day Main article: Martin Luther King, Jr. Day At the White House Rose Garden on November 2, 1983, President Ronald Reagan signed a bill creating a federal holiday to honor King. Observed for the first time on January 20, 1986, it is called Martin Luther King, Jr. Day. Following President George H. W. Bushs 1992 proclamation, the holiday is observed on the third Monday of January each year, near the time of Kings birthday. On January 17, 2000, for the first time, Martin Luther King Jr. Day was officially observed in all fifty U.S. states. Awards and recognition King was awarded at least fifty honorary degrees from colleges and universities in the U.S. and elsewhere. Besides winning the 1964 Nobel Peace Prize, in 1965 King was awarded the American Liberties Medallion by the American Jewish Committee for his exceptional advancement of the principles of human liberty. Reverend King said in his acceptance remarks, Freedom is one thing. You have it all or you are not free. King was also awarded the Pacem in Terris Award, named after a 1963 encyclical letter by Pope John XXIII calling for all people to strive for peace. In 1966, the Planned Parenthood Federation of America awarded King the Margaret Sanger Award for his courageous resistance to bigotry and his lifelong dedication to the advancement of social justice and human dignity. King was posthumously awarded the Marcus Garvey Prize for Human Rights by Jamaica in 1968. In 1971, King was posthumously awarded the Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for his Why I Oppose the War in Vietnam. Six years later, the Presidential Medal of Freedom was awarded to King by Jimmy Carter. King and his wife were also awarded the Congressional Gold Medal in 2004. King was second in Gallups List of Widely Admired People in the 20th century. In 1963 King was named Time Person of the Year and in 2000, King was voted sixth in the Person of the Century poll by the same magazine. King was elected third in the Greatest American contest conducted by the Discovery Channel and AOL. More than 730 cities in the United States have streets named after King. King County, Washington rededicated its name in his honor in 1986, and changed its logo to an image of his face in 2007. The city government center in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, is named in honor of King. King is remembered as a martyr by the Episcopal Church in the United States of America (feast day April 4) and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (feast day January 15). In 2002, scholar Molefi Kete Asante listed Martin Luther King, Jr. on his list of 100 Greatest African Americans. Capital memorial A memorial to King has been planned for construction on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., by the Martin Luther King Jr. National Memorial Project Foundation. In April 2009, the media reported that Kings family had charged the Foundation $800,000 for the use of his words and image in fund-raising materials for the memorial. Intellectual Properties Management Inc., an organization operated by Kings family, has been charging the Foundation licensing and management fees since 2003. Cambridge University historian David Garrow, who won a Pulitzer Prize for his biography of King, said of Kings familys behavior, One would think any family would be so thrilled to have their forefather celebrated and memorialized in D.C. that it would never dawn on them to ask for a penny. He added that King would have been absolutely scandalized by the profiteering behavior of his children. Kings family responded that the money would be used to maintain the King Center in Atlanta where King and his wife are entombed. Bibliography Stride toward freedom; the Montgomery story (1958) The Measure of a Man (1959) Strength to Love (1963) Why We Cant Wait (1964) Where do we go from here: Chaos or community? (1967) The Trumpet of Conscience (1968) A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings and Speeches of Martin Luther King, Jr. (1986) The Autobiography of Martin Luther King, Jr. (1998), ed. Clayborne Carson See also Georgia (U.S. state) portal African American portal Anti-racism Black Nobel Prize laureates Christian left American philosophy List of American philosophers Civil rights leaders Congressional Gold Medal recipients List of Nobel Peace Prize Laureates List of notable African Americans List of pacifists List of protest marches on Washington, DC List of religious leaders List of speeches by Martin Luther King, Jr. Opposition to the Vietnam War Pacifism Racism in the United States Notes ^ a b The Episcopal and Lutheran Churches in the USA have feast days dedicated to Martin Luther King Jr., on 4th April and 15th January respectively, as per the Calendar of saints (Episcopal Church in the United States of America), and Calendar of Saints (Lutheran). Neither church has a formal canonization process, and King Jr. is recognized as a martyr in both churches. There is a statue of King Jr. in the Gallery of 20th Century Martyrs at Westminster Abbey, London. ^ Lischer, Richard. (2001). The Preacher King, p. 3. ^ Ogletree, Charles J. (2004). All Deliberate Speed: Reflections on the First Half Century of Brown v. Board of Education. W.W. Norton & Company. pp.138. ISBN 0393058972. ^ Ling, Peter J. (2002). Martin Luther King, Jr.. Routledge. pp.11. ISBN 0415216648. ^ King, Jr., Martin Luther; Clayborne Carson; Peter Holloran; Ralph Luker; Penny A. Russell (1992). The papers of Martin Luther King, Jr.. University of California Press. pp.76. ISBN 0520079507. ^ Katznelson, Ira (2005). When Affirmative Action was White: An Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth-Century America. W.W. Norton & Company. pp.5. ISBN 0393052133. ^ King God: The Unknown Faith of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.. Tikkun Magazine. http://www.tikkun.org/article.php/nov_dec_09_scofield. Retrieved 2010-02-08. ^ Carson, Clayborne (1998). The Autobiography of Martin Luther King Jr.. Warner Books. pp.6. ISBN 0446524123. ^ Coretta Scott King. Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/1509338/Coretta-Scott-King.html. Retrieved 2008-09-08. ^ Warren, Mervyn A. (2001). King Came Preaching: The Pulpit Power of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.. InterVarsity Press. pp.35. ISBN 0830826580. ^ Fuller, Linda K. (2004). National Days/National Ways: Historical, Political, And Religious Celebrations around the World. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp.314. ISBN 0275972704. ^ Ching, Jacqueline (2002). The Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.. Rosen Publishing Group. pp.18. ISBN 0823935434. ^ Downing, Frederick L. (1986). To See the Promised Land: The Faith Pilgrimage of Martin Luther King, Jr. Mercer University Press. pp.150. ISBN 0865542074. ^ Nojeim, Michael J. (2004). Gandhi and King: The Power of Nonviolent Resistance. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp.179. ISBN 0275965740. ^ a b c Biographical Outline of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.. The King Center. http://www.thekingcenter.org/mlk/bio.html. Retrieved 2008-06-08. ^ See Martin Luther King, Jr. authorship issues. See also: Baldwin, Lewis V. (1992). To Make the Wounded Whole: The Cultural Legacy of Martin Luther King, Jr.. Fortress Press. pp.298. ISBN 0800625439., Boston U. Panel Finds Plagiarism by Dr. King. The New York Times. 1991-10-11. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CEFD61030F932A25753C1A967958260. Retrieved 2008-06-14., Heller, Steven; Veronique Vienne (2003). Citizen Designer: Perspectives on Design Responsibility. Allworth Communications, Inc.. pp.156. ISBN 1581152655. ^ http://ginsberg.umich.edu/downloads/Boyte_Dewey_Lecture2007.doc ^ Thurman, Howard (1981). With Head and Heart: The Autobiography of Howard Thurman. Harcourt. pp.254. ISBN 015697648X. ^ Thurman, Howard; Walter E. Fluker; Catherine Tumber (1998). A Strange Freedom: The Best of Howard Thurman on Religious Experience and Public Life. Beacon Press. pp.6. ISBN 080701057X. ^ Curtis, Nancy C. (1996). Black Heritage Sites: An African American Odyssey and Finders Guide. ALA Editions. pp.62. ISBN 0838906435. ^ Marsh, Charles (1999). Gods Long Summer: Stories of Faith and Civil Rights. Princeton University Press. pp.122. ISBN 0691029407. ^ The Legacy of Howard Thurman Mystic and Theologian. Religion & Ethics Newsweekly. PBS. 2002-01-18. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/religionandethics/week520/feature.html. Retrieved 2008-08-27. ^ King, Jr., Martin Luther; Clayborne Carson; Peter Holloran; Ralph Luker; Penny A. Russell (1992). The papers of Martin Luther King, Jr.. University of California Press. pp.3. ISBN 0520079507. ^ King, Jr., Martin Luther; Clay Subscribe to the comments for this post? Share this on del.icio.us Digg this! 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so you think you can dance top 20
America, here are your Top 20 Dancers for Season 4 of So You Think You Can Dance!William Wingfield, Jessica King, Kourtni Lind, Joshua Allen, Jamie Bayard and Courtney Galiano. Second row L-R: Kherington Payne, Rayven Armijo, Chelsea Traille, Chris Jarosz, Katee Shean, Thayne Jasperson, Comfort Fedoke, Susie Garcia, Marquis Cunning
Recensioni e schede tecniche sui prodotti in alluminio
Fiere, premi e partecipazioni pubbliche di Bayards Italia. L'ufficio stampa italiano del leader europeo dell'alluminio.
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