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TN, Lyles, 6915 Park Dr, 37098

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James Clayborn
"We walk past, not noticing, the subtle beauty of nature every day." All images contained in this website are copyright protected 2007, James L. Clayborn.
Biography - James Clayborn
James L. Clayborn was born in Great Falls, Montana in 1949. James studied Fine Art at the University of Montana. He moved to the Flathead Valley in 1976 and ...
Contact - James Clayborn
James L. Clayborn. 18 West California Street Kalispell, Montana 59901. USA. 406.752.8824. Email: info@jamesclayborn.com.
James Clayborn's Page - Montana Musicians
James Clayborn's Page on Montana Musicians. ... Terry Hill; james keith brandemihl; Julie Berry; Christian Johnson; Richie Reinholdt. View All ...
James Clayborn
We walk past, not noticing, the subtle beauty of nature every day.
James Clayborn
"Water" coloring in McDonald Creek, Apgar, Glacier National Park Photo: Danielle Stephens. James L. Clayborn was born in Great Falls, Montana in 1949.
James Clayborn | Facebook
James Clayborn is on Facebook. Join Facebook to connect with James Clayborn and others you may know. Facebook gives people the power to share and makes the world more ...
James Clayborn (James) on Myspace
James Clayborn (James)'s profile on Myspace, the leading social entertainment destination powered by the passion of our fans.
James Edward Clayborn Obituary - Henderson, Texas - Tributes.com
Obituary, funeral and service information for James Edward Clayborn from Henderson, Texas, funeral services by Rader Funeral Home Inc - James Edward Clayborn, 71, of ...
James Thompson Clayborn :: The Claybourn Genealogical Society
The official website of the Claybourn family ... James Thompson Clayborn Sixth Child and Youngest Son of Ephraim Claybourn
Montana Artists - James Clayborn
James Clayborn 18 West California St. Kalispell, MT 59901 Phone: 406-752-8824 Contact: Send Email Illustrator and graphic designer. Jim has created a series of art ...
James Clayborn's Photos, Address, Phone, Email | Spokeo.com
Fun Facts and Statistics James Clayborn. Spokeo people search has successfully located James Clayborn in America. Out of Spokeo's index, 100.0% of ...
James Clayborn's Page - Montana Musicians
James Clayborn's Page on Montana Musicians ... Two days before Thanksgiving, its below zero! Couple pics of the Baby Taylor in the walltent in the Mocassin Mountains ...
Clayborn James Inc - West Palm Beach, Florida (FL) | Company Profile
Clayborn James Inc company profile in West Palm Beach, FL. Our free company profile report for Clayborn James Inc includes business information such as contact, sales ...

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Winter 2013 - Bob Marshall Wilderness Foundation
Feb 21, 2013 ... 2009 Rob Akey, James Clayborn, Bobby Tilton. 2008 Larry Blackwood, Scott Friskics, Jennifer Smith. 2007 Sally Hickman, Jane Kleinschmidt, ...
Minutes - State of Indiana
Dec 17, 2009 ... James R. Clayborn. IREC 09-37. Re: Proposed Findings of Fact, Conclusions of Law, and Order. A motion was made and seconded to approve ...
Minutes Indiana Real Estate Commission March ... - State of Indiana
Mar 10, 2010 ... V. REINSTATEMENT FROM SUSPENSION HEARING. A. State of Indiana v. James Clayborn. IREC 09-37. Re: Reinstatement from Suspension ...
Minutes - State of Indiana
Jul 15, 2009 ... James Clayborn. IREC 09-37. Re: Motion by counsel to withdraw appearance. No action was necessary on this item. IX. OLD/NEW BUSINESS ...
The Alabama State Board of Social Work Examiners
Voting in favor of the motion: Leisa Askew, Paula Johnson, Sharon Argiro, Esophia Clayborn, James Ware, William Wright, and Mandy Andrews. Opposing the motion: none.
Stevens Found Guilty on All 7 Counts
Parmley also said House Majority Whip James Clyburn (D-S.C.), the highest ranking black lawmaker in Congress, will campaign for Miller next week.
INDIANA REAL ESTATE COMMISSION
James Clayborn IREC 09-37 Re: Motion by counsel to withdraw appearance No action was necessary on this item IX. OLD/NEW BUSINESS A. Legislative Update 1.
Davis Bryant "Dave" Woodall, Jr.
JAMES LENN BUTTS (Davis's cousin) was born on 9 February 1945 to James Clayborn Butts 37 and Doris Britt Woodall 36. 24. SHOTZI BUIE (Davis's cousin's wife).
IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE WESTERN DISTRICT OF ...
Immediately, a man later identified as James Holmes got out of the van's driver's ... Clayborn was constantly checking the passenger side rear-view mirror and simultaneously ...
Lawmakers look for way to offer relief from sharp electricity bill ...
A spokeswoman for Senate President Emil Jones, D-Chicago, said he is supporting the efforts of Sen. James Clayborn, D-Belleville, who is holding a series of statewide meetings ...
Defense Prisoner of War/Missing Personnel Office - Personnel ...
... park, ca kia 7/4/1951 acft comairgrp 102; uss ltjg o-453354 usn dixon, arthur stockton, ca mia 10/1/1950 msw uss magpie (ams-25) emfn 7606565 usn dowell, james clayborn ...
View from the Chair
... Board Members: Leisa Askew, LBSW Chair Paula T. Johnson, LGSW Vice-Chair Mandy C. Andrews, LGSW Secretary Sharon Argiro, LCSW Esophia Clayborn, LCSW James E. Ware, LCSW W ...
CIVIL WAR DOCUMENT
Martha Davis, d/oHenry Davis (1794­1867) and Susannah Caroline West (1798­1895) James A. Boyd Cemetery (Co. hite o. , N, ormerly ) Pvt. James Alexander Boyd ...
Descendants of Thomas Hedgecock
JAMES CLAYBORN HEDGECOCK DOCKERY, b. 12 Dec 1865, Mount Zion Church area at Nottely Dam; d. 07 Feb 1937, Cherokee Road Athens, Georgia. 5. vi. SAMUEL CLYDE HEDGECOCK, b. 28 ...

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Hearing set for lawsuit involving State Sen. Clayborne’s son
Appellate justices heard arguments on a lawsuit filed on behalf of State Sen. James Clayborne's son, who was suspended after he was accused of brandishing a disassembled pair of scissors.
Martin Luther King, Jr
Early life Martin Luther King, Jr., was born on January 15, 1929, in Atlanta, Georgia. He was the son of the Reverend Martin Luther King, Sr. and Alberta Williams King. Kings father was born Michael King, and Martin Luther King, Jr., was originally named Michael King, Jr., until the family traveled to Europe in 1934 and visited Germany. His father soon changed both of their names to Martin Luther in honor of the German Protestant leader Martin Luther. He had an older sister, Willie Christine King, and a younger brother, Alfred Daniel Williams King. King sang with his church choir at the 1939 Atlanta premiere of the movie Gone with the Wind. King was originally skeptical of many Christianitys claims. Most striking, perhaps was his denial of the bodily resurrection of Jesus during Sunday school at the age of thirteen. From this point he stated, doubts began to spring forth unrelentingly. King married Coretta Scott, on June 18, 1953, on the lawn of her parents house in her hometown of Heiberger, Alabama. King and Scott had four children; Yolanda King, Martin Luther King III, Dexter Scott King, and Bernice King. King became pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama when he was twenty-five years old in 1954. Education Growing up in Atlanta, King attended Booker T. Washington High School. He skipped ninth and twelfth grade and entered Morehouse College at age fifteen without formally graduating from high school. In 1948, he graduated from Morehouse with a Bachelor of Arts degree in sociology, and enrolled in Crozer Theological Seminary in Chester, Pennsylvania, from which he graduated with a Bachelor of Divinity degree in 1951. King then began doctoral studies in systematic theology at Boston University and received his Doctor of Philosophy on June 5, 1955, with a dissertation on A Comparison of the Conceptions of God in the Thinking of Paul Tillich and Henry Nelson Wieman. A 1980s inquiry concluded portions of his dissertation had been plagiarized and he had acted improperly but that his dissertation still makes an intelligent contribution to scholarship. Influences Populist tradition and Black populism African American topics History Atlantic slave trade Maafa Slavery in the United States Military history of African Americans Jim Crow laws Redlining Civil Rights Movements 18961954 and 19551968 Afrocentrism Reparations for slavery Culture African American studies Neighborhoods Juneteenth Black Colleges and Universities Kwanzaa Art Museums Dance Literature Music Schools Religion Black church Black liberation theology Black theology Doctrine of Father Divine American Society of Muslims Nation of Islam Black Hebrew Israelites Political movements Pan-Africanism Nationalism Black Power Capitalism Conservatism Populism Leftism Black Panther Party Garveyism Civic and economic groups NAACP SCLC CORE SNCC NUL Rights organizations ASALH UNCF Thurgood Marshall College Fund NBCC NPHC TheLinks NCNW Sports Negro league baseball CIAA SIAC MEAC SWAC Ethnic sub-divisions Black Indians Gullah Igbo Languages English Gullah Louisiana Creole French African American Vernacular English Diaspora Liberia Nova Scotia France Sierra Leone Lists African Americans African-American firsts First mayors US state firsts Landmark African-American legislation African-American-related topics Topics related to Black and African people Category Portal This box: viewtalkedit Harry C. Boyte, a self-proclaimed populist, field secretary of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference and white civil rights activist describes an episode in his life that gives insight on some of Kings influences: My first encounter with deeper meanings of populism came when I was nineteen, working as a field secretary for the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in St. Augustine, Florida in 1964. One day I was caught by five men and a woman who were members of the Ku Klux Klan. They accused me of being a communist and a Yankee. I replied, Im no Yankee my family has been in the South since before the Revolution. And Im not a communist. Im a populist. I believe that blacks and poor whites should join to do something about the big shots who keep us divided. For a few minutes we talked about what such a movement might look like. Then they let me go. When he learned of the incident, Martin Luther King, head of SCLC, told me that he identified with the populist tradition and assigned me to organize poor whites. Thurman Civil rights leader, theologian, and educator Howard Thurman was an early influence on King. A classmate of Kings father at Morehouse College, Thurman mentored the young King and his friends. Thurmans missionary work had taken him abroad where he had met and conferred with Mahatma Gandhi. When he was a student at Boston University, King often visited Thurman, who was the dean of Marsh Chapel. Walter Fluker, who has studied Thurmans writings, has stated, I dont believe youd get a Martin Luther King, Jr. without a Howard Thurman. Gandhi and Rustin Inspired by Gandhis success with non-violent activism, King visited Gandhis birthplace in India in 1959, with assistance from the Quaker group the American Friends Service Committee. The trip to India affected King in a profound way, deepening his understanding of non-violent resistance and his commitment to Americas struggle for civil rights. In a radio address made during his final evening in India, King reflected, Since being in India, I am more convinced than ever before that the method of nonviolent resistance is the most potent weapon available to oppressed people in their struggle for justice and human dignity. In a real sense, Mahatma Gandhi embodied in his life certain universal principles that are inherent in the moral structure of the universe, and these principles are as inescapable as the law of gravitation. African American civil rights activist Bayard Rustin, who had studied Gandhis teachings, counseled King to dedicate himself to the principles of non-violence, served as Kings main advisor and mentor throughout his early activism, and was the main organizer of the 1963 March on Washington. Rustins open homosexuality, support of democratic socialism, and his former ties to the Communist Party USA caused many white and African-American leaders to demand King distance himself from Rustin. Sermons and speeches Main article: Sermons and speeches of Martin Luther King, Jr. Throughout his career of service, King wrote and spoke frequently, drawing on his experience as a preacher. His Letter from Birmingham Jail, written in 1963, is a passionate statement of his crusade for justice. On October 14, 1964, King became the youngest recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, which was awarded to him for leading non-violent resistance to end racial prejudice in the United States. Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955 Main articles: Montgomery Bus Boycott, Jim Crow laws#Public arena, Claudette Colvin, and Rosa Parks In March 1955, a fifteen-year-old school girl, Claudette Colvin, refused to give up her bus seat to a white man in compliance with the Jim Crow laws. King was on the committee from the Birmingham African-American community that looked into the case; Edgar Nixon and Clifford Durr decided to wait for a better case to pursue. On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat. The Montgomery Bus Boycott, urged and planned by Nixon and led by King, soon followed. The boycott lasted for 385 days, and the situation became so tense that Kings house was bombed. King was arrested during this campaign, which ended with a United States District Court ruling in Browder v. Gayle that ended racial segregation on all Montgomery public buses. Southern Christian Leadership Conference In 1957, King, Ralph Abernathy, and other civil rights activists founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). The group was created to harness the moral authority and organizing power of black churches to conduct non-violent protests in the service of civil rights reform. King led the SCLC until his death. In 1958, while signing copies of his book Stride Toward Freedom in Blumsteins department store on 125th Street, in Harlem, he was stabbed in the chest by Izola Curry, a deranged black woman with a letter opener, and narrowly escaped death. Gandhis nonviolent techniques were useful to Kings campaign to correct the civil rights laws implemented in Alabama. King applied non-violent philosophy to the protests organized by the SCLC. In 1959, he wrote The Measure of A Man, from which the piece What is Man?, an attempt to sketch the optimal political, social, and economic structure of society, is derived. His SCLC secretary and personal assistant in this period was Dora McDonald. The FBI, under written directive from Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, began telephone tapping King in the Fall of 1963. Concerned that allegations (of Communists in the SCLC), if made public, would derail the Administrations civil rights initiatives, Kennedy warned King to discontinue the suspect associations, and later felt compelled to issue the written directive authorizing the FBI to wiretap King and other leaders of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. J. Edgar Hoover feared Communists were trying to infiltrate the Civil Rights Movement, but when no such evidence emerged, the bureau used the incidental details caught on tape over the next five years in attempts to force King out of the preeminent leadership position. King believed that organized, nonviolent protest against the system of southern segregation known as Jim Crow laws would lead to extensive media coverage of the struggle for black equality and voting rights. Journalistic accounts and televised footage of the daily deprivation and indignities suffered by southern blacks, and of segregationist violence and harassment of civil rights workers and marchers, produced a wave of sympathetic public opinion that convinced the majority of Americans that the Civil Rights Movement was the most important issue in American politics in the early 1960s. King organized and led marches for blacks right to vote, desegregation, labor rights and other basic civil rights. Most of these rights were successfully enacted into the law of the United States with the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the 1965 Voting Rights Act. King and the SCLC applied the principles of nonviolent protest with great success by strategically choosing the method of protest and the places in which protests were carried out. There were often dramatic stand-offs with segregationist authorities. Sometimes these confrontations turned violent. Albany movement Main article: Albany movement The Albany Movement was a desegregation coalition formed in Albany, Georgia in November, 1961. In December King and the SCLC became involved. The movement mobilized thousands of citizens for a broad-front nonviolent attack on every aspect of segregation within the city and attracted nationwide attention. When King first visited on December 15, 1961, he had planned to stay a day or so and return home after giving counsel. But the following day he was swept up in a mass arrest of peaceful demonstrators, and he declined bail until the city made concessions. Those agreements, said King, were dishonored and violated by the city, as soon as he left town. King returned in July 1962, and was sentenced to forty-five days in jail or a $178 fine. He chose jail. Three days into his sentence, Chief Pritchett discreetly arranged for Kings fine to be paid and ordered his release. We had witnessed persons being kicked off lunch counter stools ejected from churches and thrown into jail But for the first time, we witnessed being kicked out of jail. After nearly a year of intense activism with few tangible results, the movement began to deteriorate. King requested a halt to all demonstrations and a Day of Penance to promote non-violence and maintain the moral high ground. Divisions within the black community and the canny, low-key response by local government defeated efforts. However, it was credited as a key lesson in tactics for the national civil rights movement. Birmingham campaign Main article: Birmingham campaign The Birmingham campaign was a strategic effort by the SCLC to promote civil rights for African Americans. Many of its tactics of Project C were developed by Rev. Wyatt Tee Walker, Executive Director of SCLC from 19601964. Based on actions in Birmingham, Alabama, its goal was to end the citys segregated civil and discriminatory economic policies. The campaign lasted for more than two months in the spring of 1963. To provoke the police into filling the citys jails to overflowing, King and black citizens of Birmingham employed nonviolent tactics to flout laws they considered unfair. King summarized the philosophy of the Birmingham campaign when he said, The purpose of direct action is to create a situation so crisis-packed that it will inevitably open the door to negotiation. Protests in Birmingham began with a boycott to pressure businesses to offer sales jobs and other employment to people of all races, as well as to end segregated facilities in the stores. When business leaders resisted the boycott, King and the SCLC began what they termed Project C, a series of sit-ins and marches intended to provoke arrest. After the campaign ran low on adult volunteers, SCLCs strategist, James Bevel, initiated the action and recruited the children for what became known as the Childrens Crusade. During the protests, the Birmingham Police Department, led by Eugene Bull Connor, used high-pressure water jets and police dogs to control protesters, including children. Not all of the demonstrators were peaceful, despite the avowed intentions of the SCLC. In some cases, bystanders attacked the police, who responded with force. King and the SCLC were criticized for putting children in harms way. By the end of the campaign, Kings reputation improved immensely, Connor lost his job, the Jim Crow signs in Birmingham came down, and public places became more open to blacks. Augustine and Selma King and SCLC were also driving forces behind the protest in St. Augustine, Florida, in 1964. The movement engaged in nightly marches in the city met by white segregationists who violently assaulted them. Hundreds of the marchers were arrested and jailed. King and the SCLC joined forces with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in Selma, Alabama, in December 1964, where SNCC had been working on voter registration for several months. A sweeping injunction issued by a local judge barred any gathering of 3 or more people under sponsorship of SNCC, SCLC, or DCVL, or with the involvement of 41 named civil rights leaders. This injunction temporarily halted civil rights activity until King defied it by speaking at Brown Chapel on January 2 1965. March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom March on Washington, 1963 Main article: March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom King, representing SCLC, was among the leaders of the so-called Big Six civil rights organizations who were instrumental in the organization of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, which took place on August 28, 1963. The other leaders and organizations comprising the Big Six were: Roy Wilkins from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; Whitney Young, National Urban League; A. Philip Randolph, Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; John Lewis, SNCC; and James L. Farmer, Jr. of the Congress of Racial Equality. The primary logistical and strategic organizer was Kings colleague Bayard Rustin. For King, this role was another which courted controversy, since he was one of the key figures who acceded to the wishes of President John F. Kennedy in changing the focus of the march. Kennedy initially opposed the march outright, because he was concerned it would negatively impact the drive for passage of civil rights legislation, but the organizers were firm that the march would proceed. The march originally was conceived as an event to dramatize the desperate condition of blacks in the southern United States and a very public opportunity to place organizers concerns and grievances squarely before the seat of power in the nations capital. Organizers intended to excoriate and then challenge the federal government for its failure to safeguard the civil rights and physical safety of civil rights workers and blacks, generally, in the South. However, the group acquiesced to presidential pressure and influence, and the event ultimately took on a far less strident tone. As a result, some civil rights activists felt it presented an inaccurate, sanitized pageant of racial harmony; Malcolm X called it the Farce on Washington, and members of the Nation of Islam were not permitted to attend the march. King is perhaps most famous for his I Have a Dream speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. audio recording of Kings I Have a Dream speech The march did, however, make specific demands: an end to racial segregation in public school; meaningful civil rights legislation, including a law prohibiting racial discrimination in employment; protection of civil rights workers from police brutality; a $2 minimum wage for all workers; and self-government for Washington, D.C., then governed by congressional committee. Despite tensions, the march was a resounding success. More than a quarter million people of diverse ethnicities attended the event, sprawling from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial onto the National Mall and around the reflecting pool. At the time, it was the largest gathering of protesters in Washingtons history. Kings I Have a Dream speech electrified the crowd. It is regarded, along with Abraham Lincolns Gettysburg Address and Franklin D. Roosevelts Infamy Speech, as one of the finest speeches in the history of American oratory. Stance on compensation King giving a lecture on March 26, 1964 Martin Luther King Jr. expressed a view that black Americans, as well as other disadvantaged Americans, should be compensated for historical wrongs. In an interview conducted for Playboy in 1965, he said that granting black Americans only equality could not realistically close the economic gap between them and whites. King said that he did not seek a full restitution of wages lost to slavery, which he believed impossible, but proposed a government compensatory program of US$50 billion over ten years to all disadvantaged groups. He posited that the money spent would be more than amply justified by the benefits that would accrue to the nation through a spectacular decline in school dropouts, family breakups, crime rates, illegitimacy, swollen relief rolls, rioting and other social evils. He presented this idea as an application of the common law regarding settlement of unpaid labor but clarified that he felt that the money should not be spent exclusively on blacks. He stated, It should benefit the disadvantaged of all races. Bloody Sunday, 1965 Main article: Selma to Montgomery marches King, James Bevel, and the SCLC, in partial collaboration with SNCC, attempted to organize a march from Selma to the state capital of Montgomery, for March 7, 1965. The first attempt to march on March 7 was aborted because of mob and police violence against the demonstrators. This day has since become known as Bloody Sunday. Bloody Sunday was a major turning point in the effort to gain public support for the Civil Rights Movement, the clearest demonstration up to that time of the dramatic potential of Kings nonviolence strategy. King, however, was not present. After meeting with President Lyndon B. Johnson, he decided not to endorse the march, but it was carried out against his wishes and without his presence on March 7 by the director of the Selma Movement, James Bevel, and by local civil rights leaders. Footage of police brutality against the protesters was broadcast extensively and aroused national public outrage. King next attempted to organize a march for March 9. The SCLC petitioned for an injunction in federal court against the State of Alabama; this was denied and the judge issued an order blocking the march until after a hearing. Nonetheless, King led marchers on March 9 to the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, then held a short prayer session before turning the marchers around and asking them to disperse so as not to violate the court order. The unexpected ending of this second march aroused the surprise and anger of many within the local movement. The march finally went ahead fully on March 25. At the conclusion of the march and on the steps of the state capitol, King delivered a speech that has become known as How Long, Not Long. Chicago, 1966 King with President Lyndon Johnson in 1966 In 1966, after several successes in the South, King and others in the civil rights organizations tried to spread the movement to the North, with Chicago as its first destination. King and Ralph Abernathy, both from the middle classes, moved into the slums of North Lawndale on the west side of Chicago as an educational experience and to demonstrate their support and empathy for the poor. The SCLC formed a coalition with CCCO, Coordinating Council of Community Organizations, an organization founded by Albert Raby, and the combined organizations efforts were fostered under the aegis of The Chicago Freedom Movement. During that spring, several dual white couple/black couple tests on real estate offices uncovered the practice (now banned in the U.S.) of racial steering. These tests revealed the racially selective processing of housing requests by couples who were exact matches in income, background, number of children, and other attributes, with the only difference being their race. The needs of the movement for radical change grew, and several larger marches were planned and executed, including those in the following neighborhoods: Bogan, Belmont Cragin, Jefferson Park, Evergreen Park (a suburb southwest of Chicago), Gage Park and Marquette Park, among others. In Chicago, Abernathy later wrote that they received a worse reception than they had in the South. Their marches were met by thrown bottles and screaming throngs, and they were truly afraid of starting a riot. Kings beliefs mitigated against his staging a violent event, and he negotiated an agreement with Mayor Richard J. Daley to cancel a march in order to avoid the violence that he feared would result from the demonstration. King, who received death threats throughout his involvement in the civil rights movement, was hit by a brick during one march but continued to lead marches in the face of personal danger. When King and his allies returned to the south, they left Jesse Jackson, a seminary student who had previously joined the movement in the South, in charge of their organization. Jackson continued their struggle for civil rights by organizing the Operation Breadbasket movement that targeted chain stores that did not deal fairly with blacks. Opposition to the Vietnam War Starting in 1965, King began to express doubts about the United States role in the Vietnam War. In an April 4, 1967 appearance at the New York City Riverside Churchxactly one year before his deathing delivered a speech titled Beyond Vietnam. In the speech, he spoke strongly against the U.S.s role in the war, insisting that the U.S. was in Vietnam to occupy it as an American colony and calling the U.S. government the greatest purveyor of violence in the world today. He also argued that the country needed larger and broader moral changes: A true revolution of values will soon look uneasily on the glaring contrast of poverty and wealth. With righteous indignation, it will look across the seas and see individual capitalists of the West investing huge sums of money in Asia, Africa and South America, only to take the profits out with no concern for the social betterment of the countries, and say: This is not just. King also was opposed to the Vietnam War on the grounds that the war took money and resources that could have been spent on social welfare services like the War on Poverty. The United States Congress was spending more and more on the military and less and less on anti-poverty programs at the same time. He summed up this aspect by saying, A nation that continues year after year to spend more money on military defense than on programs of social uplift is approaching spiritual death. Many white southern segregationists vilified King; moreover, this speech soured his relationship with many members of the mainstream media. Life magazine called the speech demagogic slander that sounded like a script for Radio Hanoi, and The Washington Post declared that King had diminished his usefulness to his cause, his country, his people. King stated that North Vietnam did not begin to send in any large number of supplies or men until American forces had arrived in the tens of thousands. King also criticized the United States resistance to North Vietnams land reforms. He accused the United States of having killed a million Vietnamese, mostly children. The speech was a reflection of Kings evolving political advocacy in his later years, which paralleled the teachings of the progressive Highlander Research and Education Center, with whom King was affiliated. King began to speak of the need for fundamental changes in the political and economic life of the nation. Towards the time of his murder, King more frequently expressed his opposition to the war and his desire to see a redistribution of resources to correct racial and economic injustice. Though his public language was guarded, so as to avoid being linked to communism by his political enemies, in private he sometimes spoke of his support for democratic socialism. In one speech, he stated that something is wrong with capitalism and claimed, There must be a better distribution of wealth, and maybe America must move toward a democratic socialism. King had read Marx while at Morehouse, but while he rejected traditional capitalism, he also rejected Communism because of its materialistic interpretation of history that denied religion, its ethical relativism, and its political totalitarianism. King also stated in his Beyond Vietnam speech that true compassion is more than flinging a coin to a beggar.it comes to see that an edifice which produces beggars needs restructuring. King quoted a United States official, who said that, from Vietnam to South America to Latin America, the country was on the wrong side of a world revolution. King condemned Americas alliance with the landed gentry of Latin America, and said that the United States should support the shirtless and barefoot people in the Third World rather than suppressing their attempts at revolution. King spoke at an Anti-Vietnam demonstration where he also brought up issues of civil rights and the draft. I have not urged a mechanical fusion of the civil rights and peace movements. There are people who have come to see the moral imperative of equality, but who cannot yet see the moral imperative of world brotherhood. I would like to see the fervor of the civil-rights movement imbued into the peace movement to instill it with greater strength. And I believe everyone has a duty to be in both the civil-rights and peace movements. But for those who presently choose but one, I would hope they will finally come to see the moral roots common to both. In 1967, King gave another speech, in which he lashed out against what he called the cruel irony of American blacks fighting and dying for a country which treated them as second class citizens: We were taking the young black men who had been crippled by our society and sending them eight thousand miles away to guarantee liberties which they had not found in Southwest Georgia and East Harlem. We have been repeatedly faced with the cruel irony of watching Negro and white boys on TV screens as they kill and die together for a nation that has been unable to seat them in the same schools Poor Peoples Campaign, 1968 Main article: Poor Peoples Campaign In 1968, King and the SCLC organized the Poor Peoples Campaign to address issues of economic justice. The campaign culminated in a march on Washington, D.C. demanding economic aid to the poorest communities of the United States. King traveled the country to assemble a multiracial army of the poor that would march on Washington to engage in nonviolent civil disobedience at the Capitol until Congress created a bill of rights for poor Americans. However, the campaign was not unanimously supported by other leaders of the Civil Rights Movement. Rustin resigned from the march stating that the goals of the campaign were too broad, the demands unrealizable, and thought these campaigns would accelerate the backlash and repression on the poor and the black. Throughout his participation in the civil rights movement, King was criticized by many groups. This included opposition by more militant blacks and such prominent critics as Nation of Islam member Malcolm X. Stokely Carmichael was a separatist and disagreed with Kings plea for racial integration because he considered it an insult to a uniquely African-American culture. Omali Yeshitela urged Africans to remember the history of violent European colonization and how power was not secured by Europeans through integration, but by violence and force. King and the SCLC called on the government to invest in rebuilding Americas cities. He felt that Congress had shown hostility to the poor by spending military funds with alacrity and generosity. He contrasted this with the situation faced by poor Americans, claiming that Congress had merely provided poverty funds with miserliness. His vision was for change that was more revolutionary than mere reform: he cited systematic flaws of racism, poverty, militarism and materialism, and argued that reconstruction of society itself is the real issue to be faced. Assassination Main article: Martin Luther King, Jr. assassination The Lorraine Motel, where King was assassinated, is now the site of the National Civil Rights Museum. On March 29, 1968, King went to Memphis, Tennessee in support of the black sanitary public works employees, represented by AFSCME Local 1733, who had been on strike since March 12 for higher wages and better treatment. In one incident, black street repairmen received pay for two hours when they were sent home because of bad weather, but white employees were paid for the full day. On April 3, King addressed a rally and delivered his Ive Been to the Mountaintop address at Mason Temple, the world headquarters of the Church of God in Christ. Kings flight to Memphis had been delayed by a bomb threat against his plane. In the close of the last speech of his career, in reference to the bomb threat, King said the following: And then I got to Memphis. And some began to say the threats, or talk about the threats that were out. What would happen to me from some of our sick white brothers? Well, I dont know what will happen now. Weve got some difficult days ahead. But it doesnt matter with me now. Because Ive been to the mountaintop. And I dont mind. Like anybody, I would like to live a long life. Longevity has its place. But Im not concerned about that now. I just want to do Gods will. And Hes allowed me to go up to the mountain. And Ive looked over. And Ive seen the promised land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight, that we, as a people, will get to the promised land. And Im happy, tonight. Im not worried about anything. Im not fearing any man. Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord. King was booked in room 306 at the Lorraine Motel, owned by Walter Bailey, in Memphis. The Reverend Ralph Abernathy, Kings close friend and colleague who was present at the assassination, swore under oath to the United States House Select Committee on Assassinations that King and his entourage stayed at room 306 at the Lorraine Motel so often it was known as the King-Abernathy suite. According to Jesse Jackson, who was present, Kings last words on the balcony prior to his assassination were spoken to musician Ben Branch, who was scheduled to perform that night at an event King was attending: Ben, make sure you play Take My Hand, Precious Lord in the meeting tonight. Play it real pretty. Then, at 6:01 p.m., April 4, 1968, a shot rang out as King stood on the motels second floor balcony. The bullet entered through his right cheek smashing his jaw and then traveled down his spinal cord before lodging in his shoulder. Abernathy heard the shot from inside the motel room and ran to the balcony to find King on the floor. The events following the shooting have been disputed, as some people have accused Jackson of exaggerating his response. After emergency chest surgery, King was pronounced dead at St. Josephs Hospital at 7:05 p.m. According to biographer Taylor Branch, Kings autopsy revealed that though only thirty-nine years old, he had the heart of a sixty-year-old man, perhaps a result of the stress of thirteen years in the civil rights movement. The assassination led to a nationwide wave of riots in more than 100 cities. Presidential nominee Robert Kennedy was on his way to Indianapolis for a campaign rally when he was informed of Kings death. He gave a short speech to the gathering of supporters informing them of the tragedy and asking them to continue Kings idea of non-violence. President Lyndon B. Johnson declared April 7 a national day of mourning for the civil rights leader. Vice-President Hubert Humphrey attended Kings funeral on behalf of Lyndon B. Johnson, as there were fears that Johnsons presence might incite protests and perhaps violence. At his widows request, Kings last sermon at Ebenezer Baptist Church was played at the funeral. It was a recording of his Drum Major sermon, given on February 4, 1968. In that sermon, King made a request that at his funeral no mention of his awards and honors be made, but that it be said that he tried to feed the hungry, clothe the naked, be right on the [Vietnam] war question, and love and serve humanity. His good friend Mahalia Jackson sang his favorite hymn, Take My Hand, Precious Lord, at the funeral. The city of Memphis quickly settled the strike on terms favorable to the sanitation workers. Two months after Kings death, escaped convict James Earl Ray was captured at London Heathrow Airport while trying to leave the United Kingdom on a false Canadian passport in the name of Ramon George Sneyd on his way to white-ruled Rhodesia. Ray was quickly extradited to Tennessee and charged with Kings murder. He confessed to the assassination on March 10, 1969, though he recanted this confession three days later. On the advice of his attorney Percy Foreman, Ray pleaded guilty to avoid a trial conviction and thus the possibility of receiving the death penalty. Ray was sentenced to a 99-year prison term. Ray fired Foreman as his attorney, from then on derisively calling him Percy Fourflusher. He claimed a man he met in Montreal, Quebec with the alias Raoul was involved and that the assassination was the result of a conspiracy. He spent the remainder of his life attempting (unsuccessfully) to withdraw his guilty plea and secure the trial he never had. On June 10, 1977, shortly after Ray had testified to the House Select Committee on Assassinations that he did not shoot King, he and six other convicts escaped from Brushy Mountain State Penitentiary in Petros, Tennessee. They were recaptured on June 13 and returned to prison. Allegations of conspiracy Rays lawyers maintained he was a scapegoat similar to the way that alleged John F. Kennedy assassin Lee Harvey Oswald is seen by conspiracy theorists. One of the claims used to support this assertion is that Rays confession was given under pressure, and he had been threatened with the death penalty. Ray was a thief and burglar, but he had no record of committing violent crimes with a weapon. Those suspecting a conspiracy in the assassination point out the two separate ballistics tests conducted on the Remington Gamemaster recovered by police had neither conclusively proved Ray had been the killer nor that it had even been the murder weapon. Moreover, witnesses surrounding King at the moment of his death say the shot came from another location, from behind thick shrubbery near the rooming house which had been inexplicably cut away in the days following the assassination and not from the rooming house window. Martin Luther Kings & Coretta Scott Kings tomb, located on the grounds of the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historic Site Developments In 1997, Kings son Dexter Scott King met with Ray, and publicly supported Rays efforts to obtain a new trial. Two years later, Coretta Scott King, Kings widow, along with the rest of Kings family, won a wrongful death claim against Loyd Jowers and other unknown co-conspirators. Jowers claimed to have received $100,000 to arrange Kings assassination. The jury of six whites and six blacks found Jowers guilty and that government agencies were party to the assassination. William F. Pepper represented the King family in the trial. King biographer David Garrow disagrees with William F. Peppers claims that the government killed King. He is supported by author Gerald Posner who has researched and written about the assassination. In 2000, the United States Department of Justice completed the investigation about Jowers claims but did not find evidence to support allegations about conspiracy. The investigation report recommended no further investigation unless some new reliable facts are presented. The New York Times reported a church minister, Rev. Ronald Denton Wilson, claimed his father, Henry Clay Wilsonot James Earl Rayssassinated Martin Luther King, Jr. He stated, It wasnt a racist thing; he thought Martin Luther King was connected with communism, and he wanted to get him out of the way. Kings friend and colleague, James Bevel, disputed the argument that Ray acted alone, stating, There is no way a ten-cent white boy could develop a plan to kill a million-dollar black man. In 2004, Jesse Jackson, who was with King at the time of his death, noted: The fact is there were saboteurs to disrupt the march. And within our own organization, we found a very key person who was on the government payroll. So infiltration within, saboteurs from without and the press attacks. I will never believe that James Earl Ray had the motive, the money and the mobility to have done it himself. Our government was very involved in setting the stage for and I think the escape route for James Earl Ray. Riots After Kings assassination riots broke out in Chicago, Boston, Detroit, and Washington. Black leader James Farmer, Jr. and others called for non-violent action. Dr. King would be greatly distressed to find that his blood had triggered off bloodshed and disorder I think instead the nation should be quiet; black and white, and we should be in a prayerful mood, which would be in keeping with his life. We should make that kind of dedication and commitment to the goals which his life served to solving the domestic problems. Thats the memorial, thats the kind of memorial we should build for him. Its just not appropriate for there to be violent retaliations, and that kind of demonstration in the wake of the murder of this pacifist and man of peace. Stokely Carmichael called for immediate forceful action. White America killed Dr. King last night. She made a whole lot easier for a whole lot of black people today. There no longer needs to be intellectual discussions, black people know that they have to get guns. White America will live to cry that she killed Dr. King last night. It would have been better if she had killed Rap Brown and/or Stokley Carmichael, but when she killed Dr. King, she lost. FBI and wiretapping Allegations of Communist connections J. Edgar Hoover, the director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, for years had been paranoid about potential influence of communists in social movements such as labor unions and civil rights. Hoover directed the FBI to track King in 1957, and the SCLC as it was established (it did not have a full-time executive director until 1960); its investigations were largely superficial until 1962, when it learned that one of Kings most trusted advisers was New York City lawyer Stanley Levison. The FBI found Levison had been involved with the Communist Party USA. The FBI had observed his alienation from the Party leadership, but it feared he had taken a low profile in order to work as an agent of influence in order to manipulate King, a view it continued to hold despite its own reports in 1963 that Levison had left the Party. Another King lieutenant, Hunter Pitts ODell, was also linked to the Communist Party by sworn testimony before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC). However, by 1976 the FBI had acknowledged that it had not obtained any evidence that King himself or the SCLC were actually involved with any communist organizations. The Bureau received authorization to proceed with wiretapping from Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy in the Fall of 1963 and informed President John F. Kennedy, both of whom unsuccessfully tried to persuade King to dissociate himself from Levison. Although Robert Kennedy only gave written approval for limited wiretapping of Kings phones on a trial basis, for a month or so, Hoover extended the clearance so his men were unshackled to look for evidence in any areas of Kings life they deemed worthy. The Bureau placed wiretaps on Levisons and Kings home and office phones, and bugged Kings rooms in hotels as he traveled across the country. For his part, King adamantly denied having any connections to Communism, stating in a 1965 Playboy interview that there are as many Communists in this freedom movement as there are Eskimos in Florida, and claiming that Hoover was following the path of appeasement of political powers in the South and that his concern for communist infiltration of the civil rights movement was meant to aid and abet the salacious claims of southern racists and the extreme right-wing elements. Hoover did not believe his pledge of innocence and replied by saying that King was the most notorious liar in the country. After King gave his I Have A Dream speech during the March on Washington on August 28, 1963, the FBI described King as the most dangerous and effective Negro leader in the country. In December 1963, FBI officials who were gathered to a special conference alleged that King was knowingly, willingly and regularly cooperating with and taking guidance from communists whose long-term strategy was to create of a Negro-labor coalition detrimental to American security. The attempt to prove that King was a Communist was related to the feeling of many segregationists that blacks in the South were happy with their lot but had been stirred up by communists and outside agitators. The civil rights movement arose from activism within the black community dating back to before World War I. Levison did have ties with the Communist Party in various business dealings, but the FBI refused to believe its own intelligence bureau reports that Levison was no longer associated in that capacity. In response to the FBIs comments regarding communists directing the civil rights movement, King said that the Negro revolution is a genuine revolution, born from the same womb that produces all massive social upheavalshe womb of intolerable conditions and unendurable situations. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X, March 26, 1964. Allegations of adultery Having concluded that King was dangerous due to communist infiltration, the focus of the Bureaus investigations shifted to attempting to discredit King through revelations regarding his private life. FBI surveillance of King, some of it since made public, attempted to demonstrate that he also engaged in numerous extramarital affairs. Further remarks on Kings lifestyle were made by several prominent officials, such as Lyndon Johnson, who once said that King was a hypocritical preacher. Ralph Abernathy, a close associate of Kings, stated in his 1989 autobiography And the Walls Came Tumbling Down that King had a weakness for women. In a later interview, Abernathy said he only wrote the term womanizing, and did not specifically say King had extramarital sex. Kings biographer David Garrow detailed what he called Kings compulsive sexual athleticism. Garrow wrote about numerous extramarital affairs, including one with a woman King saw almost daily. According to Garrow, that relationship, rather than his marriage, increasingly became the emotional centerpiece of Kings life, but it did not eliminate the incidental couplings that were a commonplace of Kings travels. King explained his extramarital affairs as a form of anxiety reduction. Garrow noted that Kings promiscuity was the cause of painful and overwhelming guilt. The FBI distributed reports regarding such affairs to the executive branch, friendly reporters, potential coalition partners and funding sources of the SCLC, and Kings family. The Bureau also sent anonymous letters to King threatening to reveal information if he did not cease his civil rights work. One anonymous letter sent to King just before he received the Nobel Peace Prize read, in part, The American public, the church organizations that have been helpingrotestants, Catholics and Jews will know you for what you aren evil beast. So will others who have backed you. You are done. King, there, is only one thing left for you to do. You know what it is. You have just 34 days in which to do (this exact number has been selected for a specific reason, it has definite practical significant [sic]). You are done. There is but one way out for you. You better take it before your filthy fraudulent self is bared to the nation. King interpreted this as encouragement for him to commit suicide, although William Sullivan, head of the Domestic Intelligence Division at the time, argued that it may have only been intended to convince Dr. King to resign from the SCLC. King refused to give in to the FBIs threats. On January 31, 1977, United States district Judge John Lewis Smith, Jr., ordered all known copies of the recorded audiotapes and written transcripts resulting from the FBIs electronic surveillance of King between 1963 and 1968 to be held in the National Archives and sealed from public access until 2027. Across from the Lorraine Motel, next to the rooming house in which James Earl Ray was staying, was a fire station. Police officers were stationed in the fire station to keep King under surveillance. Using papered-over windows with peepholes cut into them, the agents were watching the scene while Martin Luther King was shot. Immediately following the shooting, officers rushed out of the station to the motel, and Marrell McCollough, an undercover police officer, was the first person to administer first-aid to King. The antagonism between King and the FBI, the lack of an all points bulletin to find the killer, and the police presence nearby have led to speculation that the FBI was involved in the assassination. Legacy From the Gallery of 20th Century Martyrs at Westminster Abbey. to r. Mother Elizabeth of Russia, Rev. Martin Luther King, Archbishop Oscar Romero and Pastor Dietrich Bonhoeffer Kings main legacy was to secure progress on civil rights in the United States, which has enabled more Americans to reach their potential. He is frequently referenced as a human rights icon today. His name and legacy have often been invoked since his death as people have debated his likely position on various modern political issues. On the international scene, Kings legacy included influences on the Black Consciousness Movement and Civil Rights Movement in South Africa. Kings work was cited by and served as an inspiration for Albert Lutuli, another black Nobel Peace prize winner who fought for racial justice in that country. The day following Kings assassination, school teacher Jane Elliott conducted her first Blue Eyes/Brown Eyes exercise with her class of elementary school students in Riceville, Iowa. Her purpose was to help them understand Kings death as it related to racism, something they little understood from having lived in a predominately white community. Kings wife, Coretta Scott King, followed her husbands footsteps and was active in matters of social justice and civil rights until her death in 2006. The same year that Martin Luther King was assassinated, Mrs. King established the King Center in Atlanta, Georgia, dedicated to preserving his legacy and the work of championing nonviolent conflict resolution and tolerance worldwide. His son, Dexter King, currently serves as the centers chairman. Daughter Yolanda King is a motivational speaker, author and founder of Higher Ground Productions, an organization specializing in diversity training. There are opposing views even within the King family regarding the slain civil rights leaders religious and political views about gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people. Kings widow Coretta said publicly that she believed her husband would have supported gay rights. However, his daughter Bernice believed he would have been opposed to gay marriage. The King Center includes discrimination, and lists homophobia as one of its examples, in its list of The Triple Evils that should be opposed. In 1980, the Department of Interior designated Kings boyhood home in Atlanta and several nearby buildings the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historic Site. In 1996, United States Congress authorized the Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity to establish a foundation to manage fund raising and design of a Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial on the Mall in Washington, DC. King was a member of Alpha Phi Alpha, the first intercollegiate Greek-letter fraternity established by and for African Americans. King was the first African American honored with his own memorial in the National Mall area and the first non-President to be commemorated in such a way. The sculptor chosen was Lei Yixin. The King Memorial will be administered by the National Park Service. Kings life and assassination inspired many artistic works. A 1976 Broadway production, I Have a Dream, was directed by Robert Greenwald and starred Billy Dee Williams as King. In spring of 2006, a stage play about King was produced in Beijing, China with King portrayed by Chinese actor, Cao Li. The play was written by Stanford University professor, Clayborne Carson. King spoke earlier about what people should remember him for if they are around for his funeral. He said rather than his awards and where he went to school, people should talk about how he fought peacefully for justice.: Id like somebody to mention that day that Martin Luther King Jr. tried to give his life serving others. Id like for somebody to say that day that Martin Luther King Jr. tried to love somebody. I want you to say that day that I tried to be right on the war question. I want you to be able to say that day that I did try to feed the hungry. I want you to be able to say that day that I did try in my life to clothe those who were naked. I want you to say on that day that I did try in my life to visit those who were in prison. And I want you to say that I tried to love and serve humanity. Yes, if you want to say that I was a drum major. Say that I was a drum major for justice. Say that I was a drum major for peace. I was a drum major for righteousness. And all of the other shallow things will not matter.1968 Year In Review, UPI.com Martin Luther King, Jr. Day Main article: Martin Luther King, Jr. Day At the White House Rose Garden on November 2, 1983, President Ronald Reagan signed a bill creating a federal holiday to honor King. Observed for the first time on January 20, 1986, it is called Martin Luther King, Jr. Day. Following President George H. W. Bushs 1992 proclamation, the holiday is observed on the third Monday of January each year, near the time of Kings birthday. On January 17, 2000, for the first time, Martin Luther King Jr. Day was officially observed in all fifty U.S. states. Awards and recognition King was awarded at least fifty honorary degrees from colleges and universities in the U.S. and elsewhere. Besides winning the 1964 Nobel Peace Prize, in 1965 King was awarded the American Liberties Medallion by the American Jewish Committee for his exceptional advancement of the principles of human liberty. Reverend King said in his acceptance remarks, Freedom is one thing. You have it all or you are not free. King was also awarded the Pacem in Terris Award, named after a 1963 encyclical letter by Pope John XXIII calling for all people to strive for peace. In 1966, the Planned Parenthood Federation of America awarded King the Margaret Sanger Award for his courageous resistance to bigotry and his lifelong dedication to the advancement of social justice and human dignity. King was posthumously awarded the Marcus Garvey Prize for Human Rights by Jamaica in 1968. In 1971, King was posthumously awarded the Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for his Why I Oppose the War in Vietnam. Six years later, the Presidential Medal of Freedom was awarded to King by Jimmy Carter. King and his wife were also awarded the Congressional Gold Medal in 2004. King was second in Gallups List of Widely Admired People in the 20th century. In 1963 King was named Time Person of the Year and in 2000, King was voted sixth in the Person of the Century poll by the same magazine. King was elected third in the Greatest American contest conducted by the Discovery Channel and AOL. More than 730 cities in the United States have streets named after King. King County, Washington rededicated its name in his honor in 1986, and changed its logo to an image of his face in 2007. The city government center in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, is named in honor of King. King is remembered as a martyr by the Episcopal Church in the United States of America (feast day April 4) and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (feast day January 15). In 2002, scholar Molefi Kete Asante listed Martin Luther King, Jr. on his list of 100 Greatest African Americans. Capital memorial A memorial to King has been planned for construction on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., by the Martin Luther King Jr. National Memorial Project Foundation. In April 2009, the media reported that Kings family had charged the Foundation $800,000 for the use of his words and image in fund-raising materials for the memorial. Intellectual Properties Management Inc., an organization operated by Kings family, has been charging the Foundation licensing and management fees since 2003. Cambridge University historian David Garrow, who won a Pulitzer Prize for his biography of King, said of Kings familys behavior, One would think any family would be so thrilled to have their forefather celebrated and memorialized in D.C. that it would never dawn on them to ask for a penny. He added that King would have been absolutely scandalized by the profiteering behavior of his children. Kings family responded that the money would be used to maintain the King Center in Atlanta where King and his wife are entombed. Bibliography Stride toward freedom; the Montgomery story (1958) The Measure of a Man (1959) Strength to Love (1963) Why We Cant Wait (1964) Where do we go from here: Chaos or community? (1967) The Trumpet of Conscience (1968) A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings and Speeches of Martin Luther King, Jr. (1986) The Autobiography of Martin Luther King, Jr. (1998), ed. Clayborne Carson See also Georgia (U.S. state) portal African American portal Anti-racism Black Nobel Prize laureates Christian left American philosophy List of American philosophers Civil rights leaders Congressional Gold Medal recipients List of Nobel Peace Prize Laureates List of notable African Americans List of pacifists List of protest marches on Washington, DC List of religious leaders List of speeches by Martin Luther King, Jr. Opposition to the Vietnam War Pacifism Racism in the United States Notes ^ a b The Episcopal and Lutheran Churches in the USA have feast days dedicated to Martin Luther King Jr., on 4th April and 15th January respectively, as per the Calendar of saints (Episcopal Church in the United States of America), and Calendar of Saints (Lutheran). Neither church has a formal canonization process, and King Jr. is recognized as a martyr in both churches. There is a statue of King Jr. in the Gallery of 20th Century Martyrs at Westminster Abbey, London. ^ Lischer, Richard. (2001). The Preacher King, p. 3. ^ Ogletree, Charles J. (2004). All Deliberate Speed: Reflections on the First Half Century of Brown v. Board of Education. W.W. Norton & Company. pp.138. ISBN 0393058972. ^ Ling, Peter J. (2002). Martin Luther King, Jr.. Routledge. pp.11. ISBN 0415216648. ^ King, Jr., Martin Luther; Clayborne Carson; Peter Holloran; Ralph Luker; Penny A. Russell (1992). The papers of Martin Luther King, Jr.. University of California Press. pp.76. ISBN 0520079507. ^ Katznelson, Ira (2005). When Affirmative Action was White: An Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth-Century America. W.W. Norton & Company. pp.5. ISBN 0393052133. ^ King God: The Unknown Faith of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.. Tikkun Magazine. http://www.tikkun.org/article.php/nov_dec_09_scofield. Retrieved 2010-02-08. ^ Carson, Clayborne (1998). The Autobiography of Martin Luther King Jr.. Warner Books. pp.6. ISBN 0446524123. ^ Coretta Scott King. Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/1509338/Coretta-Scott-King.html. Retrieved 2008-09-08. ^ Warren, Mervyn A. (2001). King Came Preaching: The Pulpit Power of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.. InterVarsity Press. pp.35. ISBN 0830826580. ^ Fuller, Linda K. (2004). National Days/National Ways: Historical, Political, And Religious Celebrations around the World. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp.314. ISBN 0275972704. ^ Ching, Jacqueline (2002). The Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.. Rosen Publishing Group. pp.18. ISBN 0823935434. ^ Downing, Frederick L. (1986). To See the Promised Land: The Faith Pilgrimage of Martin Luther King, Jr. Mercer University Press. pp.150. ISBN 0865542074. ^ Nojeim, Michael J. (2004). Gandhi and King: The Power of Nonviolent Resistance. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp.179. ISBN 0275965740. ^ a b c Biographical Outline of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.. The King Center. http://www.thekingcenter.org/mlk/bio.html. Retrieved 2008-06-08. ^ See Martin Luther King, Jr. authorship issues. See also: Baldwin, Lewis V. (1992). To Make the Wounded Whole: The Cultural Legacy of Martin Luther King, Jr.. Fortress Press. pp.298. ISBN 0800625439., Boston U. Panel Finds Plagiarism by Dr. King. The New York Times. 1991-10-11. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CEFD61030F932A25753C1A967958260. Retrieved 2008-06-14., Heller, Steven; Veronique Vienne (2003). Citizen Designer: Perspectives on Design Responsibility. Allworth Communications, Inc.. pp.156. ISBN 1581152655. ^ http://ginsberg.umich.edu/downloads/Boyte_Dewey_Lecture2007.doc ^ Thurman, Howard (1981). With Head and Heart: The Autobiography of Howard Thurman. Harcourt. pp.254. ISBN 015697648X. ^ Thurman, Howard; Walter E. Fluker; Catherine Tumber (1998). A Strange Freedom: The Best of Howard Thurman on Religious Experience and Public Life. Beacon Press. pp.6. ISBN 080701057X. ^ Curtis, Nancy C. (1996). Black Heritage Sites: An African American Odyssey and Finders Guide. ALA Editions. pp.62. ISBN 0838906435. ^ Marsh, Charles (1999). Gods Long Summer: Stories of Faith and Civil Rights. Princeton University Press. pp.122. ISBN 0691029407. ^ The Legacy of Howard Thurman Mystic and Theologian. Religion & Ethics Newsweekly. PBS. 2002-01-18. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/religionandethics/week520/feature.html. Retrieved 2008-08-27. ^ King, Jr., Martin Luther; Clayborne Carson; Peter Holloran; Ralph Luker; Penny A. Russell (1992). The papers of Martin Luther King, Jr.. University of California Press. pp.3. ISBN 0520079507. ^ King, Jr., Martin Luther; Clay Subscribe to the comments for this post? Share this on del.icio.us Digg this! 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Few Democrats flocking to fill Jerry Costello's seat
SPRINGFIELD, Ill. • U.S. Rep. Jerry Costello's surprise announcement this week that he will retire after this term leaves his Democratic Party with no incumbent advantage in November 2012, no obvious successor — and, so far, no one rushing to get on the ballot. In fact, several of the party's political first-stringers in the region have already ruled out running. Some of them are citing the toxic atmosphere in Washington these days. "That's a long way to go just to play partisan politics," said state Sen. James Clayborne, D-Belleville, who confirmed Thursday he won't run for the seat. Nor will state Sen. Bill Haine, D-Alton. "Absolutely not," said Haine "At this point in my life, I don't see going to Washington as anything other than a tourist." Also keeping their hats out of the ring are St. Clair County State's Attorney Brendan Kelly, a rising star in the party, and St. Clair County Board Chairman Mark Kern, who stressed the urgency that the party find someone who can "fill the shoes" of Costello — but emphatically said it won't be him. Even those key Democrats who are considering entering the race are doing so slowly. State Rep. Tom Holbrook, D-Belleville, confirmed that a run at the seat is "an option" for him but one he's not yet sure he will pursue. "I'm going to have to find out what the lay of the land is," Holbrook said. "It came as a surprise to everyone." Monroe County Democratic Central Committee Chairman Alan Pirtle is pondering that option, too. "I'm considering it. I haven't made up my mind," said Pirtle. "You don't want to rush into a decision like this." Also possibly considering a run is former state Rep. Jay Hoffman, D-Collinsville, who narrowly lost a congressional campaign in 1996. Hoffman is currently running for the neighboring congressional district held by U.S. Rep. Tim Johnson, R-Champaign. Hoffman could, in theory, abandon that campaign and switch to Costello's district, where he has a more familiar political base and wouldn't
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Chris Johnson - News, photos, topics, and quotes
The training doesn’t stop for LaMichael James, now in Southern California ... 28) runs against Tampa Bay Buccaneers defenders Tanard Jackson (36) and Adrian Clayborn ...
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Fast Facts: List of 2007 Presidential Pardons | Fox News
— James Albert Bodendieck Sr., of New Athens, Ill., convicted in 1959 of ... — Jackie Ray Clayborn, of Deer, Ark., convicted in 1993 of manufacturing marijuana.
List Of First Round Draft Picks | Fox News
Tampa Bay Buccaneers; Adrian Clayborn; defensive end; Iowa. 21. Cleveland Browns ... Seattle Seahawks; James Carpenter; offensive guard; Alabama. 26. Kansas City ...
Memphis May Finally Name City Street After King | Fox News
The Rev. James Netters, who marched with King and the sanitation workers as a ... The avenue runs in front of the Clayborn Temple — where King rallied with ...
Buccaneers Take Monday Night Stage Against Slumping Colts | Fox News
A strong pass rush headed up by rookie end Adrian Clayborn (4 tackles, 1 sack ... well as the hostile conditions that a sold-out and energized Raymond James ...
Lowly Bucs Strive For Long-awaited Win In Atlanta | Fox News
Clayborn is tied for second among NFC rookies in sacks and also forced a fumble ... Dodgers Star James Loney -- Off the Hook in Crazy DUI Case; UFC Stud Alistair ...
Cowboys Take On Bumbling Buccaneers In Saturday Night Special ...
Tampa Bay owns a 3-3 record at Raymond James Stadium this year, while the ... showed their inexperience, though end and 2011 first-round pick Adrian Clayborn ...
College Basketball Preview - Southland Conference | Fox News
James made headlines when he established a new Lamar single-game record of ... Dewan Clayborn, who started 19 games at point guard, averaged 8.7 ppg, but he ...
College Basketball Preview - Southwestern Athletic Conference ...
Aaron Clayborn will also need to show he is able to help the team. Last season ... Dodgers Star James Loney -- Off the Hook in Crazy DUI Case; UFC Stud Alistair ...
Iowa - Team Notes - USATODAY.com - News, Travel, Weather ...
"Looking back, there are a lot of things we wish we could change," quarterback James Vandenberg said. "We had plenty of opportunities." All the Hawkeyes can do now is wait ...
Iowa State - Team Notes - USATODAY.com - News, Travel, Weather ...
RB Jeff Woody -- He could see his role in the offense expand this week, as starting RB James White deals with a shoulder injury. He had a career-high 13 carries a week ago.
Iowa looks to rebuild inconsistent defense - USATODAY.com
... irreplaceable, such as defensive end Adrian Clayborn and safety Tyler Sash. But the hope has been building for at least a year that middle linebacker James ...
One Buc Place - Tag Story Index - USATODAY.com
... Gerald McCoy | Mike Alstott | Jeff Faine | Da'Quan Bowers | Mark Dominik | Adrian Clayborn ... did exactly that, a day after losing to the New York Giants 24-14 at Raymond James ...
Mike Williams - Tag Story Index - USATODAY.com
FIND MORE STORIES IN: NCAA | Mike Williams | Mike James | Al Golden | Jacory Harris | ... Gerald McCoy | Mike Alstott | Jeff Faine | Da'Quan Bowers | Mark Dominik | Adrian Clayborn ...
Warren Sapp - Tag Story Index - USATODAY.com
... Mike Wallace | Emmitt Smith | Jim Harbaugh | Joe Flacco | Steve Young | Ray Rice | James ... High draft picks Adrian Clayborn and Da'Quan Bowers are key pieces of an evolving unit ...
Mike Alstott - Tag Story Index - USATODAY.com
... Gerald McCoy | Mike Alstott | Jeff Faine | Da'Quan Bowers | Mark Dominik | Adrian Clayborn ... Super Bowl XLIII | Nelly | Florida International University | Diddy | Raymond James ...
Earnest Graham - Tag Story Index - USATODAY.com
... Gerald McCoy | Mike Alstott | Jeff Faine | Da'Quan Bowers | Mark Dominik | Adrian Clayborn ... Atlanta Falcons, and with just under two minutes to play on Sunday at Raymond James ...
Carolina Panthers - Tag Story Index - USATODAY.com
... Calvin Johnson | Josh McDaniels | Mike Wallace | Desean Jackson | Ray Rice | James Jones ... Juan Castillo | Corey Peters | Dekoda Watson | Garo Yepremian | Adrian Clayborn | Phil ...
Derrick Brooks - Tag Story Index - USATODAY.com
High draft picks Adrian Clayborn and Da'Quan Bowers are key pieces of an evolving unit ... Marvin Harrison | Joe Montana | Mike Martz | Jamal Lewis | Edgerrin James | Jerry Rice | ...
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Related people(15)

Aaron T Clayborn Gulfport MS 39503
Aaron Clayborn Clinton Township MI 48036
Aaron T Clayborn Grand Forks ND 58201
Erin Clayborn Buffalo MN 55313
Erin Clayborn Watertown MN 55388
Alfi Clayborn Waterford MS 38685
Alicia Clayborn Little Rock AR 72211
Alicia Clayborn Yazoo City MS 39194
Alan D Clayborn Ringgold LA 71068
Alan D Clayborn Ringgold LA 71068
Allan W Clayborn Olympia WA 98502
Allan W Clayborn Columbus OH 43207
Allan Clayborn Bethany MO 64424
Allen Clayborn Russellville AR 72802
Allen Clayborn Vallejo CA 94591

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Biography(20)

James Clayborn
Paintings Small Paintings Biography ... All images contained in this website are copyright protected 2007, James L. Clayborn ...
James Clayborn
Homes (17) Paintingss (17) Small Paintingss (17) Biographys (17 ... James L. Clayborn was born in Great Falls, Montana in 1949. James studied Fine Art at the ...
Jim Clyburn - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
James Enos "Jim" Clyburn (born July 21, 1940) is the U.S. Representative for South Carolina's 6th congressional district, serving since 1993, and the Assistant ...
Artist James Clayborn Art Posters - Bigfork Montana Art Gallery ...
Artist Biography ... James Clayborn Posters All Prices Subject to Change Without Notice On this page are ...
James Enos CLYBURN — Infoplease.com
Biography; Sports; Arts & Ent. Business; Calendar & Holidays; Health & Science; Homework Center ... History and Government—Congressional Biographies—South Carolina James Enos ...
James Clayborn, The Greater Elkhart Chamber of Commerce | ZoomInfo.com
Mr. James R. Clayborn ... Our professional profiles include verified contact information, biography, work ...
James Clayborn Posters - Business Profiles and Company Information ...
James Clayborn Posters ... Our professional profiles include verified contact information, biography, work ...
Illinois General Assembly - Senator Biography
Biography: Bills: Committees : Senator James F. Clayborne, Jr. (D) - Previous General Assembly (95th) 57th District
Adrian Clayborn - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Adrian Clayborn (born July 6, 1988) is an American football defensive end for the Tampa ... Michael Bennett (RFA) | 72 Jovan Haye (UFA) | 76 Jeremy Zuttah (UFA) | 77 James Lee ...
Jack and Mae from K.C.K:Information about James N. Clayborn
James N. Clayborn (b. February 1843) James N. Clayborn (son of George R. Clayborn) was born ... Biography.com | HistoryChannel.com | Site Index | Terms of Service | PRIVACY
Super Bowl XX
Halfback Craig James rushed for 1,227 yards, caught 27 passes for ... Pro bowl defensive back Raymond Clayborn recorded 6 interceptions for ...
1985 New England Patriots season
Roster: New England Patriots 1985 roster | ... 32 Craig James 30 Mosi Tatupu FB. 24 Robert Weathers ... 26 Raymond Clayborn CB. 43 Ernest Gibson CB ...
List of characters from The Sopranos in the Soprano crime family
James "Murmur" Zancone : Played by: Lenny Venito Appears in: "Members Only ", " ... William Johnson "Petite" Clayborn : Played by: John Eddins ...
Boogie Down!
Track listing : Darrell Clayborn, James Jamerson - Bass Dean Parks, Dennis Coffey , Greg Poree, Melvin "Wah-Wah Watson" Ragin - Guitar ...
Eddie Kendricks (album)
Track listing ": Darrell Clayborn, James Jamerson - Bass Billy Cooper, Dean Parks , Greg Poree - Guitar. Ed Greene , Kenny "Spider" Rice - ...
List of New England Patriots first-round draft picks
1977 16 | Raymond Clayborn | CB Texas | 25 | Stanley Morgan | WR Tennessee | ... 1980 14 | Roland James | CB | Tennessee | ...
1988 New England Patriots season
42 Ronnie Lippett LCB 26 Raymond Clayborn RCB 38 Roland James SS 31 Fred Marion FS. Kicking Team. 7 Teddy Garcia K 6 Jeff Feagles P 82 Sammy ...
History of the New England Patriots
Patriots players, including Fryar, cornerback Raymond Clayborn , safety Roland James , and running back Tony Collins were marijuana users. ...
Isabella (The Sopranos)
James Gandolfini as Tony Soprano ... As Tony walks back to his car and as Clayborn approaches, Tony sees Clayborn's reflection in the window ...
1984 New England Patriots season
Roster: New England Patriots 1984 roster | ... 32 Craig James FB. 30 Mosi Tatupu FB. 24 Robert Weathers ... 26 Raymond Clayborn CB. 47 Paul Dombroski S ...