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James Herzberger

FL, Ocala, 2314 SE 30th St, 34471

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James W. Herzberger - Manhattan
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James Moneydacity Herzberger | Facebook
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Banyan Boulevard - Orlando real estate news, data and statistics ...
8433 Banyan Blvd, N/A, James L Herzberger, Orlando-Doctor Phillips, -, -. Single Family, 8434 Banyan Blvd, N/A, James B Bessellieu and Victoria Bessellieu ...
International Knife Throwers Hall of Fame Event Scores
Junior Knife World Champion: Brooke Landry, 100 points. Josh Marini 78 (throw- off score 21). Madison Balcombe 78 (throw-off score 18). James Herzberger 78 ...
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UC Riverside Department of Hispanic Studies
Herzberger, David . Chair, Hispanic Studies (951) 827-1476 Office: HMNSS 2422 david.herzberger@ucr.edu Degrees. B.A. Pennsylvania State University, 1971
Dr. James S. Martin, MD, State College, PA - Orthopedic Surgery
Dr. James Martin, MD, State College, PA, Orthopedic Surgery. Get a FREE Background Report on Dr. Martin. View ratings, complaints, credentials, and detailed practice ...
James Heuberger's Photos, Phone, Email, Address, Public Records ...
James Hamberger; James Heimberger; James Heiberger; James Herberger; James Heberer; James Hemberger; James Herzberger
Herzberger - Pipl Directory
People named Herzberger. Find the person you're looking for and related people. ... James Herzberger
8 people named James Heuberger in the US | WhitePages
#3,544,455 James Herzberger #3,544,456 James Hettler #3,544,457 James Heuberger #3,544,458 James Heuring #3,544,459 James Hevener #3,544,460 James Heyd #3,544,461 James Heydt
UC Davis School of Law - News & Events - News
From the Class of 2013 (L to R): Paloma Velez, Benjamin Herzberger, Dimple Patel, Natalie James, Tom Morris. King Hall faculty, staff, students, and alumni welcomed ...
Margaret Herzberger - Bay Village, OH | MyLife™
Joseph Herzberger Cumming, GA 35 James Herzberger New York, NY 31 Janice Herzberger Bay Village, OH 60 John Herzberger Santa Rosa ...
James Herzberger an Injury & Health Related Specialist in ...
Accepting New Patients: Yes: Insurances Accepted: Accepts Insurance but Carriers Unknown: Gender: Male: Spoken Languages: English: Years in Practice: Unknown: Board ...
James Herzberger | Doctor.com - Find A Doctor by Health insurance ...
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Health Care Attorney Cedar Rapids IA - Cedar Rapids IA, health ...
Local resource for health care attorneys in Cedar Rapids. Includes detailed ... Mark James Herzberger 319-366-7331
James Herzberg .. James Hesler - Intelius.com
James Herzberg Villisca, IA; James Herzberger Fort Myers, FL; James Herzet Marion, KS; James Herzfeld Benton, AR; James Herzig Colrain, MA; James Herzig Oshkosh, WI
Physicians Assistants directory by name and by state - free doctor ...
James Herzberger - Manhattan, Kansas; Kentucky. Kelly Henson - Powderly, Kentucky; Kristin Hernstrom - Elizabethtown, Kentucky; Gregory Hershey - Fort Campbell, Kentucky
International Knife Throwers Hall of Fame Event Scores
Todd Abrams ... James Herzberger 78 (throw-off score 17)
Cedar Rapids/Iowa City Volume 9, Issue 3
... Steve Kluesner Marty McAllister Thomas Slaubaugh 25 Years Edwin Frederick Stanley Pfoff Jim Stephens 30 Years Michael Carson Una Durbala Dean Ellingson JoAnn Greene James Herzberger ...
St Edward High School, Lakewood, Ohio Class of 1999 @ MyLife.com
James Herzberger Luke Ilersich Brian Klecan Dr Love Roger Maddron Jr. Bill Mangano Bob Murphy Joe Murphy Naum Pino Mark Preputnik Nicholas Richards Jonathan Schmitz Brian Sheehan ...
UC Riverside Department of Hispanic Studies
Herzberger, David . Chair, Hispanic Studies (951) 827-1476 Office: HMNSS 2422 david.herzberger@ucr.edu Degrees. B.A. Pennsylvania State University, 1971

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James L. Herzberger in memory of Mr. & Mrs. Carl L. Herzberger. Holocaust Center Board and Staff in memory of Hyman Lake, Mrs. Frances Arkin and Harold ...
CURRICULUM VITAE Name: David K. Herzberger Present Position ...
Telephone: 951-827-1476 email: david.herzberger@ucr.edu .... Victor García Ruiz & D. Herzberger,. Pamplona: University of .... James Press, 1993, pp. 204- 05.
2010 Maryland Standards and Specifications for Soil Erosion and ...
Oct 15, 2009 ... Michael Herzberger (MES). James Tracy (MDE). Amanda Malcolm (MDE). Richard Trickett (MDE). Maria Warburton (MDE). Ken Pensyl (MDE) ...
James Griggs
in New Zealand. James Griggs. Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Master of Education. University of Canterbury ...
Cedar Rapids/Iowa City Volume 9, Issue 3
... Steve Kluesner Marty McAllister Thomas Slaubaugh 25 Years Edwin Frederick Stanley Pfoff Jim Stephens 30 Years Michael Carson Una Durbala Dean Ellingson JoAnn Greene James Herzberger ...
STIPULATION OF SETTLEMENT AND RELEASE BETWEEN PLAINTIFF AND ...
James liuber, an ind!vidual; Br.ia~ Herzberger, an individual; Fatima Farahan, an 12 individual; Mark Montijo, an individu~I;Dr. Sina Radparvar, an individual; Kaiser ...
POSITION PRIMARY ALTERNATE TRAINEE APPRENTICE ICT1 Tony Wilder (MS ...
James Ehrlich (TN-CNF) GISS: Eric Schmeckpeper (GA-R08) Jason Braunstein (VA-VAS) William Leatherwood (NC-NCF) Annabeth Rice (GA-SEP) Barry Wood (FL-MIR)
Student Retention Initiatives at Trinity College Penelope Paschal ...
I talked to Dean Reuman, Dean Spurlock-Evans and Dean Herzberger. They were very helpful ... Evans gave me an informative packet that was designed for the new President James ...
Chapter 5: List of Preparers
... Economist, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. Thaddeus Herzberger ... List of Preparers Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge Final EIS/CCP 169 James Neil ...
Reaching Out, Providing Hope
... Dr. and Mrs. Garrett Crotty Mr. and Mrs. Ira Daitzman Mr. and Mrs. James Daly, Jr. Ms ... Mr. and Mrs. Richard Heller Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence Hersch Mr. Jim Herzberger Ms. Robyn ...
Molly McGuigan, Stephanie Morgan, Maura O'Donnell- McCarthy and ...
Karen Herzberger - Support Staff: Aide/OAPSE President. OAPSE: Hanna Jennings - Former Atty ... Eadie, James. Community: Moutoux, Megan. Parent: Winter, Carol. WL Board Member: Earls, Julian
2011 ILLINOIS SOIL & WATER CONSERVATION DISTRICTS DIRECTORY
... District Conservationist: Mark Hitz mark.hitz@il.usda.gov District Employee: Leo Herzberger ... Toledo ..... 62468 217/849-3687 V-Chairman Mr. Roger James ...
STRUCTURE & FREEDOM
... Susan C. Piedmont-Palladino Committee Chair Gregory Keane Hunt Committee Member James ... Herman Herzberger (Hertzberger, 243) All photographs and drawings by Stephanie S. Tincher ...
Raymond A'hearn
... David Geiselman • Terri Gentry • Dennis Genualdi • Robert Geocaris • James ... Timothy Herrick • Richard Herriford • Patricia Marshall Hertzog • Leo Herzberger ...

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Job Satisfaction of University Employees
Background of the Study: Job satisfaction is the result of various attitudes possessed by an employee towards his job. These attitudes may be related to job factors, such as wage, job security job environment, nature of work, opportunities for promotion, prompt removal of grievances, opportunities of participation in decision making and other fringe benefits. Job satisfaction may thus be defined as an attitude which results from a balancing and summation of many specific like and dislikes experienced by an employee in the performance of his job; or an employees judgment of how well his job, on the whole, provides opportunities to satisfy his needs. It refers to ones job, his general adjustment and social relationship in and outside his job. This satisfaction and dissatisfaction with ones job depends upon the positive or negative evaluation of ones own success or failure in the realization of personal goals and perceived contribution of the job to it. Universities are the center for imparting higher Education. Universities in the modern world are expected to seek and cultivate new knowledge ,provide the right kind of leadership in all walks of life and strive to promote equality and social justice. The Universities in India, however ,have to shoulder some additional responsibilities. They have to be conscience to the nation, develop programme for adult education assist in improving schools, and try to bring back the center of gravity of academic life within the country. The university system has to lay stress on and pursue four important elements, they are(i)Excellence(ii) Modernization(iii)Interaction, and (iv) Self-reliance. These are all inter-related. True pursuit of excellence in all spheres of activities of a university will help imbibing and nurturing in the university life. The qualities of humanism, tolerance, reason and adventure of ideas, search of truth and thereby help for leading humanity towards even higher objectives. Modernization in terms of courses, facilities, evaluation methods and faculty up gradation will turn enrich teaching, research, examination system and extension activities. Modernization equips better the university to play its role effectively. Interaction and inter-dependence are well recognized concepts in the present day global situation. Universities are no exception to this. They should come out of their ivory towers concept and interact with outside world viz .the society , the Government, sister institutions, industrial organization and the world. Through interaction, the university excellence should be shared for national development. Autonomy in the true sense should be the privilege of the University system so as to enable it to respond with full vigor for fulfillment of its objectives and goal. Academic autonomy relation to offering courses, evolving evaluation methods, teaching research and extension activities is available. Financial autonomy is vital for continuation of universities as centers for excellence and need of the hour is to initiate steps for fund generation and reduce its dependence on the Government to the extent possible, thus paving the way towards self-reliance. Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University (YCMOU),was established in 1989.In its search for imparting quality education through Distance Mode, it is trying to create a distinct identity in the Indian Open Education System. The YCMOU is the 5th Open University in India, and the fourth one at the state level with its goal of becoming a Mass Varsity. It emphasizes on vocational, technical, professional as well as general educational programmes and its approach towards fostering a new work culture and developmental linkage. The university has set out to create an identity on the national educational scene. The university is trying to develop such management practices that will help it to become efficient, economical(cost-effective) and accountable at each level. YCMOU runs more than 177 programmes through Distance mode. It has developed more than 1500 books, more than 342 Adios and more than 350 videos on various subjects. It has achieved Award Of Excellence for Institutional Achievement. in Distance Learning from the Common Wealth of Learning, Canada(2002). It is listed among the Mega Open Universities in the World (2005). It has many International Collaborations and some are now in pipeline. They are: Common Wealth of Learning, Canada; Commonwealth Secretarial London, Brock University, Canada, Athabascan University, Canada, Wawasan Open University, Malaysia, the Chartered Management Institute of London, UK and International Food Policy Research Institute for the Global Open Food and Agriculture University, U. S. A. etc. The researcher is working in YCMOU since February 1992. Holding on many positions , he has witnessed university activities closely. The personnel working at YCMOU has carried out many responsibilities. They used to carry on any responsibility they are shouldered upon. There are various types of activities carried out in a distance education set up like planning of programmes, development of instructional materials, production of instructional materials, delivery of materials and services like counseling, assessment etc, evaluation of products, processes and services ,maintenance of revision of instructional programmes and administration type work, etc. When one considers about the job satisfaction on the grounds like good infrastructures, good garden, good working environment, it also depends upon the status & recognition, sex, age and experience and the qualifications that contribute for having the job satisfaction. Ones attitude towards the job and personal involvement in the job also affects the satisfaction in the job. Organizational Climate and personality characteristics also play a major role in influencing the job satisfaction of any employee. Working condition is the major contributor for job satisfaction. But all types of work condition are neither fully satisfying nor dissatisfying, Job satisfaction definitely promotes happiness, success and efficiency in ones professional activity wherein the organizational climate helps in developing a happy and congenial interactions among the employees & management. Job satisfaction can be an important indicator of how employees feel about their jobs and a predictor of work behaviors such as organizational citizenship, absenteeism and turnover. Further job satisfaction can partially mediate the relationship of personality variables and deviant work behaviors .It seems satisfaction and job performance are directly related to one another. There are many researches published on job satisfaction which confirms this statement. Therefore it is necessary to study about the job satisfaction of the employees in YCMOU Rationale Behind the Study : Satisfaction pertaining to the job leads the employee to perform well. Employees working in YCMOU are performing their task without any hesitation. But whether they are satisfied with their jobs are not be testified with the research. Therefore the research in this regard is proposed to carry on. Statement of the Research Problem: A Study of job satisfaction of the Employees in YCMOU Objectives of the Research: 1.To study the job satisfaction , of the academic staff of the employees working in YCMOU. 2. To study the job satisfaction of the non-academic staff working as class I employees in YCMOU. 3. To study the job satisfaction of the non-academic staff working as class II employees in YCMOU. 4.To study the job satisfaction of the non-academic staff working as class III Employees in YCMOU. 5.To study the job satisfaction of the non-academic staff working as class IV employees in YCMOU. 6.To study the overall general job satisfaction of the non-academic employees working in YCMOU 7.To study the overall general job satisfaction of the employees working in YCMOU 8.To make general remarks pertaining to job satisfaction of the employees of YCMOU comparing academic staff and each category level of non-academic staff of YCMOU Review of Related Literature and Researches 1 Office Type in Relation to Health,Well-Being, and Job Satisfaction Among Employees. By: Bodin Danielsson, Christina; Bodin, Lennart. Environment & Behavior, Sep2008, Vol. 40 Issue 5, p636-668, 33p, 2.Job satisfaction among a multigenerational nursing workforce. By: WILSON, BARBARA; SQUIRES, MAE; WIDGER, KIMBERLEY; CRANLEY, LISA; TOURANGEAU, ANN. Journal of Nursing Management, Sep2008, Vol. 16 Issue 6, p716-723, 8p, 3.The relationship between nursing leadership and nurses job satisfaction in Canadian oncology work environments. By: Cummings, Greta G.; Olson, Karin; Hayduk, Leslie; Bakker, Debra; Fitch, Margaret; Green, Esther; Butler, Lorna; Conlon, Michael. Journal of Nursing Management, Jul2008, Vol. 16 Issue 5, p508-518, 11p; 4.Leadership behaviour of nurse managers in relation to job satisfaction and work climate. By: Sellgren, Stina Fransson; Ekvall, Gran; Tomson, Gran. Journal of Nursing Management, Jul2008, Vol. 16 Issue 5, p578-587, 10p; 5.Measuring community nurses job satisfaction: literature review. By: Caers, Ralf; Du Bois, Cindy; Jegers, Marc; De Gieter, Sara; De Cooman, Rein; Pepermans, Roland. Journal of Advanced Nursing, Jun2008, Vol. 62 Issue 5, p521-529, 9p; 6.Job satisfaction among psychiatric registered nurses in new England. By: Sharp, T. P.. Journal of Psychiatric & Mental Health Nursing, Jun2008, Vol. 15 Issue 5, p374-378, 5p; 7.The Effects of Faculty Demographic Characteristics and Disciplinary Context on Dimensions of Job Satisfaction. By: Seifert, Tricia; Umbach, Paul. Research in Higher Education, Jun2008, Vol. 49 Issue 4, p357-381, 25p; 8.Job satisfaction among intensive care nurses from the Peoples Republic of China. By: Li, J.; Lambert, V. A.. International Nursing Review, Mar2008, Vol. 55 Issue 1, p34-39, 6p, 9.Role Overload, Job Satisfaction, Leisure Satisfaction, and Psychological Health Among Employed Women. By: Pearson, Quinn M.. Journal of Counseling & Development, Winter2008, Vol. 86 Issue 1, p57-63, 7p, 10 Types of Workplace Social Support in the Prediction of Job Satisfaction. By: Harris, J. Irene; Winskowski, Ann Marie; Engdahl, Brian E.. Career Development Quarterly, Dec2007, Vol. 56 Issue 2, p150-156, 7p; 11.THE CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JOB SATISFACTION AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT. By: Tung-Chun Huang; Wan-Jung Hsiao. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 2007, Vol. 35 Issue 9, p1265-1275, 11p, 12.Comparison of Job Satisfaction Between Experienced Medical-Surgical Nurses and Experienced Critical Care Nurses. (cover story) By: Davis, Barbara A.; Ward, Cynthia; Woodall, Marsha; Shultz, Sarah; Davis, Heather. MEDSURG Nursing, Oct2007, Vol. 16 Issue 5, p311-316, 6p, 13.Literature Review of Teacher Job Satisfaction. By: Song Hongying. Chinese Education & Society, Sep/Oct2007, Vol. 40 Issue 5, p11-16, 6p; 14.The Structure of Secondary School Teacher Job Satisfaction and Its Relationship with Attrition and Work Enthusiasm. By: Chen Weiqi. Chinese Education & Society, Sep/Oct2007, Vol. 40 Issue 5, p17-31, 15p, 15.Study of Job Satisfaction Among Elementary School Teachers in Shanghai. By: Zhang Zhongshan. Chinese Education & Society, Sep/Oct2007, Vol. 40 Issue 5, p40-46, 7p, 16.A Study of Teacher Job Satisfaction and Factors That Influence It. By: Bolin, Feng. Chinese Education & Society, Sep/Oct2007, Vol. 40 Issue 5, p47-64, 18p, 17.An Analysis of the Relation Between Secondary School Organizational Climate and Teacher Job Satisfaction. By: Pan Xiaofu; Qin Qiwen. Chinese Education & Society, Sep/Oct2007, Vol. 40 Issue 5, p65-77, 13p, 18.Research on Job Satisfaction of Elementary and High School Teachers and Strategies to Increase Job Satisfaction. By: Xu Fuming; Shen Jiliang. Chinese Education & Society, Sep/Oct2007, Vol. 40 Issue 5, p86-96, 11p, 19.Role stress and job satisfaction for nurse specialists. By: Yao-Mei Chen; Sue-Hui Chen; Chiu-Yueh Tsai; Liang-Yueh Lo. Journal of Advanced Nursing, Sep2007, Vol. 59 Issue 5, p497-509, 13p, 20.Constructive Thought Strategies and Job Satisfaction: A Preliminary Examination. By: Houghton, Jeffery; Jinkerson, Darryl. Journal of Business & Psychology, Fall2007, Vol. 22 Issue 1, p45-53, 9p, 21.Job satisfaction and importance for intensive care unit research coordinators: results from binational survey. By: Rickard, Claire M.; Roberts, Brigit L.; Foote, Jonathon; McGrail, Matthew R.. Journal of Clinical Nursing, Sep2007, Vol. 16 Issue 9, p1640-1650, 11p 22 Job satisfaction as mediator: An assessment of job satisfactions position within the nomological network. By: Crede, Marcus; Chernyshenko, Oleksandr S.; Stark, Stephen; Dalal, Reeshad S.; Bashshur, Michael. Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, Sep2007, Vol. 80 Issue 3, p515-538, 24p, 23 Trait conscientiousness, leader-member exchange, job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behaviour: A test of an integrative model. By: Lapierre, Laurent M.; Hackett, Rick D.. Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, Sep2007, Vol. 80 Issue 3, p539-554, 16p, 24 Computerizing Organizational Attitude Surveys: An Investigation of the Measurement Equivalence of a Multifaceted Job Satisfaction Measure. By: Mueller, Karsten; Liebig, Christian; Hattrup, Keith. Educational & Psychological Measurement, Aug2007, Vol. 67 Issue 4, p658-678, 21p, 25 Job satisfaction in psychiatric nursing. By: WARD, M.; COWMAN, S.. Journal of Psychiatric & Mental Health Nursing, Aug2007, Vol. 14 Issue 5, p454-461, 8p, 26 The impact of intermediate care services on job satisfaction, skills and career development opportunities. By: Nancarrow, Susan. Journal of Clinical Nursing, Jul2007, Vol. 16 Issue 7, p1222-1229, 8p, 27 Employee Satisfaction and Theft: Testing Climate Perceptions as a Mediator. By: Kulas, John T.; McInnerney, Joanne E.; DeMuth, Rachel Frautschy; Jadwinski, Victoria. Journal of Psychology, Jul2007, Vol. 141 Issue 4, p389- 402, 14p, 28.Regulatory Mode and Preferred Leadership Styles: How Fit Increases Job Satisfaction. By: Kruglanski, Arie W.; Pierro, Antonio; Higgins, E. Tory. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, Jun2007, Vol. 29 Issue 2, p137-149, 13p, 29.A model of job satisfaction of nurses: a reflection of nurses working lives in Mainland China. By: Hong Lu; While, Alison E.; Louise Barriball, K.. Journal of Advanced Nursing, Jun2007, Vol. 58 Issue 5, p468-479, 12p, 30.The relationship between personal traits and job satisfaction among Taiwanese community health volunteers. By: Mei-Chih Lin; I-chuan Li; Kuan-chia Lin. Journal of Clinical Nursing, Jun2007, Vol. 16 Issue 6, p1061-1067, 7p, 31.Reliability of job satisfaction measures. By: Kristensen, Nicolai; Westergaard-Nielsen, Niels. Journal of Happiness Studies, Jun2007, Vol. 8 Issue 2, p273-292, 20p, 32.The influence of forest view through a window on job satisfaction and job stress. By: Won Sop Shin. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, Jun2007, Vol. 22 Issue 3, p248-253, 6p, 33.Does Fairness Matter More to Some than to Others? The Moderating Role of Workplace Status on The Relationship Between Procedural Fairness Perceptions and Job Satisfaction. By: Diekmann, Kristina; Sondak, Harris; Barsness, Zoe. Social Justice Research, Jun2007, Vol. 20 Issue 2, p161-180, 20p, 34.Relationship Between Personality Traits, Job Satisfaction, and Job Involvement Among Taiwanese Community Health Volunteers. By: Li, I-chuan; Lin, Mei-Chih; Chen, Ching-Min. Public Health Nursing, May/Jun2007, Vol. 24 Issue 3, p274-282, 9p, 35.The Long-Term Impact of the Feedback Environment on Job Satisfaction: A Field Study in a Belgian Context. By: Anseel, Frederik; Lievens, Filip. Applied Psychology: An International Review, Apr2007, Vol. 56 Issue 2, p254-266, 13p, 36.Job satisfaction of Italian nurses: an exploratory study. By: CORTESE, CLAUDIO G.. Journal of Nursing Management, Apr2007, Vol. 15 Issue 3, p303-312, 10p; 37.Relationship between how nurses resolve their conflicts with doctors, their stress and job satisfaction. By: TABAK, NILI; ORIT, KOPRAK. Journal of Nursing Management, Apr2007, Vol. 15 Issue 3, p321-331, 11p; 38.WORK-RELATED STRESS, BURNOUT AND JOB SATISFACTION IN TURKISH MIDWIVES. By: Oncel, Selma; Ozer, Zeynep Canli; Efe, Emine. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 2007, Vol. 35 Issue 3, p317-328, 12p, 39.Person-environment congruence, self-efficacy, and environmental identity in relation to job satisfaction: a career decision theory perspective. By: Perdue, Stacie Vernick; Reardon, Robert C.; Peterson, Gary W.. Journal of Employment Counseling, Mar2007, Vol. 44 Issue 1, p29-39, 11p; 40.Taking a sickie: Job satisfaction and job involvement as interactive predictors of absenteeism in a public organization. By: Wegge, Jrgen; Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut; Parkes, Carole; Van Dick, Rolf. Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, Mar2007, Vol. 80 Issue 1, p77-89, 13p, 41.Examining Herzbergs Theory: Improving Job Satisfaction among Non-academic Employees at a University. By: Smerek, Ryan; Peterson, Marvin. Research in Higher Education, Mar2007, Vol. 48 Issue 2, p229-250, 22p, 42.Job satisfaction among young European higher education graduates. By: Mora, Jos-Gins; Garca-Aracil, Adela; Vila, Luis E.. Higher Education, Jan2007, Vol. 53 Issue 1, p29-59, 31p, 43.The Distribution of Job Satisfaction Among Young European Graduates: Does the Choice of Study Field Matter? By: Vila, Luis E.; Garca-Aracil, Adela; Mora, Jos-Gins. Journal of Higher Education, Jan/Feb2007, Vol. 78 Issue 1, p97-118, 22p, 44.Factors related to job satisfaction among South Korean dentists. By: Seong-Hwa Jeong; Jae-Kyun Chung; Youn-Hee Choi; Woosung Sohn; Keun-Bae Song. Community Dentistry & Oral Epidemiology, Dec2006, Vol. 34 Issue 6, p460-466, 7p, 45.The effects of principals humor on teachers job satisfaction. By: Hurren, B. Lee. Educational Studies (03055698), Dec2006, Vol. 32 Issue 4, p373-385, 13p, 46.The effect of change and transformation on academic staff and job satisfaction: A case of a South African University. By: Mapesela, Mabokang; Hay, Driekie. Higher Education, Dec2006, Vol. 52 Issue 4, p711-747, 37p, 47.EXAMINING THE BURNOUT OF ACADEMICS IN RELATION TO JOB SATISFACTION AND OTHER FACTORS. By: Bilge, Filiz. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 2006, Vol. 34 Issue 9, p1151-1160, 10p, 48.The Long-Term Care Workforce Crisis: Dementia-Care Training Influences on Job Satisfaction and Career Commitment. By: Coogle, Constance; Head, Colleen; Parham, Iris. Educational Gerontology, Sep2006, Vol. 32 Issue 8, p611-631, 20p, 49.Job Satisfaction Among TANF Leavers. By: Scott, Jeff. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, Sep2006, Vol. 33 Issue 3, p127-149, 23p, 50.Efficacy of clinical supervision: influence on job satisfaction, burnout and quality of care. By: Hyrks, Kristiina; Appelqvist-Schmidlechner, Kaija; Haataja, Riina. Journal of Advanced Nursing, Aug2006, Vol. 55 Issue 4, p521-535, 15p, 51.Integrating Situational and Dispositional Determinants of Job Satisfaction: Findings From Three Samples of Professionals. By: COHRS, J. CHRISTOPHER; ABELE, ANDREA E.; DETTE, DOROTHEA E.. Journal of Psychology, Jul2006, Vol. 140 Issue 4, p363-395, 33p; 52.Men in Traditional and Nontraditional Careers: Gender Role Attitudes, Gender Role Conflict, and Job Satisfaction. By: Dodson, Thomas A.; Borders, L. DiAnne. Career Development Quarterly, Jun2006, Vol. 54 Issue 4, p283-296, 14p; 53.Sources of teacher job satisfaction and dissatisfaction in Cyprus. By: Zembylas, Michalinos; Papanastasiou, Elena. Compare: A Journal of Comparative Education, Jun2006, Vol. 36 Issue 2, p229-247, 19p, 54.Job satisfaction and temperament structure of gifted people By: Sieka?ska, Ma?gorzata; S?kowski, Andrzej. High Ability Studies, Jun2006, Vol. 17 Issue 1, p75-85, 10p, 55.Transformational and transactional leadership effects on teachers job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior in primary schools: The Tanzanian case. By: Nguni, Samuel; Sleegers, Peter; Denessen, Eddie. School Effectiveness & School Improvement, Jun2006, Vol. 17 Issue 2, p145-177, 33p, 56.Extrinsic and intrinsic work values: their impact on job satisfaction in nursing. By: Hegney, Desley; Plank, Ashley; Parker, Victoria. Journal of Nursing Management, May2006, Vol. 14 Issue 4, p271-281, 11p, 57.Evaluation of an open-rota system in a Danish psychiatric hospital: a mechanism for improving job satisfaction and worklife balance. By: Pryce, Joanna; Albertsen, Karen; Nielsen, Karina. Journal of Nursing Management, May2006, Vol. 14 Issue 4, p282-288, 7p, 58.Canadian Public Health Nurses Job Satisfaction. By: Best, Maureen F.; Thurston, Norma E.. Public Health Nursing, May2006, Vol. 23 Issue 3, p250-255, 6p, 59.School Psychologists Job Satisfaction A 22-Year Perspective in the USA. By: Worrell, Travis G.; Skaggs, Gary E.; Brown, Michael B.. School Psychology International, May2006, Vol. 27 Issue 2, p131-145, 15p, 60.Personal Goal Facilitation through Work: Implications for Employee Satisfaction and Well-Being. By: Doest, Laura ter; Maes, Stan; Gebhardt, Winifred A.; Koelewijn, Hennie. Applied Psychology: An International Review, Apr2006, Vol. 55 Issue 2, p192-219, 28p, 61.Explaining Knowledge Sharing: The Role of Team Communication Styles, Job Satisfaction, and Performance Beliefs. By: de Vries, Reinout E.; van den Hooff, Bart; de Ridder, Jan A.. Communication Research, Apr2006, Vol. 33 Issue 2, p115-135, 21p; 62.Relationships Between Adult Workers Spiritual Well-Being and Job Satisfaction: A Preliminary Study. By: Robert, Tracey E.; Young, J. Scott; Kelly, Virginia A.. Counseling & Values, Apr2006, Vol. 50 Issue 3, p165-175, 11p; 63.Multiple Role Balance, Job Satisfaction, and Life Satisfaction in Women School Counselors. By: Bryant, Rhonda M.; Constantine, Madonna G.. Professional School Counseling, Apr2006, Vol. 9 Issue 4, p265-271, 7p, 64.Academic Staff Workloads and Job Satisfaction: Expectations and values in academe. By: Houston, Don; Meyer, Luanna H.; Paewai, Shelley. Journal of Higher Education Policy & Management, Mar2006, Vol. 28 Issue 1, p17-30, 14p, 65.Job Satisfaction Among Neonatal Nurses. By: Archibald, Cynthia. Pediatric Nursing, Mar/Apr2006, Vol. 32 Issue 2, p176-162, 5p; 66.Teaching Satisfaction Scale Measuring Job Satisfaction of Teachers. By: Chung-Lim Ho; Wing-Tung Au. Educational & Psychological Measurement, Feb2006, Vol. 66 Issue 1, p172-185, 14p; 67.Do School Counselors Matter? Mattering as a Moderator Between Job Stress and Job Satisfaction. By: Rayle, Andrea Dixon. Professional School Counseling, Feb2006, Vol. 9 Issue 3, p206-215, 10p, 68.Education and the Determinants of Job Satisfaction. By: Vila, Luis E.; Garca?Mora, Belen. Education Economics, Dec2005, Vol. 13 Issue 4, p409-425, 17p, 69.JOB SATISFACTION OF PHYSICIANS WITH CONGRUENT VERSUS INCONGRUENT SPECIALTY CHOICE. By: Borges, Nicole J.; Gibson, Denise D.; Karnani, Rajil M.. Evaluation & the Health Professions, Dec2005, Vol. 28 Issue 4, p400-413, 14p; 70.Motivation and job satisfaction in the Swiss Support Company in Kosovo. By: Bennett, Jonathan; Boesch, Rolf; Haltiner, Karl. International Peacekeeping (13533312), Winter2005, Vol. 12 Issue 4, p562-575, 14p, 71.Job satisfaction among Norwegian general practitioners. By: Nylenna, Magne; Gulbrandsen, Pl; Frde, Reidun; Aasland, Olaf. Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, Dec2005, Vol. 23 Issue 4, p198-202, 5p; 72.Organizational Justice and Job Satisfaction: A Test of Three Competing Models. By: Clay-Warner, Jody; Reynolds, Jeremy; Roman, Paul. Social Justice Research, Dec2005, Vol. 18 Issue 4, p391-409, 19p, 73 Teacher job satisfaction: lessons from the TSW Pathfinder Project. By: Butt, Graham; Lance, Ann; Fielding, Antony; Gunter, Helen; Rayner, Steve; Thomas, Hywel. School Leadership & Management, Nov2005, Vol. 25 Issue 5, p455-471, 17p, 74 Modeling Teacher Empowerment: The role of job satisfaction. By: Zembylas, Michalinos; Papanastasiou, Elena C.. Educational Research & Evaluation, Oct2005, Vol. 11 Issue 5, p433-459, 27p; 75 Home Healthcare Nurses Job Satisfaction Scale: refinement and psychometric testing. By: Ellenbecker, Carol H.; Byleckie, James J.. Journal of Advanced Nursing, Oct2005, Vol. 52 Issue 1, p70-78, 9p, 76 African American Counselor Educators Job Satisfaction and Perceptions of Departmental Racial Climate. By: Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl; Addison-Bradley, Carla. Counselor Education & Supervision, Sep2005, Vol. 45 Issue 1, p2-15, 14p; 77 The Moderating Effects of Work-Family Role Combinations and Work-Family Organizational Culture on the Relationship Between Family- Friendly Workplace Supports and Job Satisfaction. By: Sahibzada, Khatera; Hammer, Leslie B.; Neal, Margaret B.; Kuang, Daniel C.. Journal of Family Issues, Sep2005, Vol. 26 Issue 6, p820-839, 20p; 78 A longitudinal and multi-source test of the workfamily conflict and job satisfaction relationship. By: Grandey, Alicia A.; Cordeiro, Bryanne L.; Crouter, Ann C.. Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, Sep2005, Vol. 78 Issue 3, p305-323, 19p, 79 Affirmative Action and Job Satisfaction: Understanding Underlying Processes. By: Niemann, Yolanda Flores; Dovidio, John F.. Journal of Social Issues, Sep2005, Vol. 61 Issue 3, p507-523, 17p, 80 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JOB CHARACTERISTICS AND ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR: THE MEDIATIONAL ROLE OF JOB SATISFACTION. By: Su-Fen Chiu; Hsiao-Lan Chen. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 2005, Vol. 33 Issue 6, p523-539, 17p, 81 Job and organizational determinants of nursing home employee commitment, job satisfaction and intent to turnover. By: Karsh, B.; Booske, B.; Sainfort, F.. Ergonomics, 8/15/2005, Vol. 48 Issue 10, p1260-1281, 22p, 82 Job satisfaction of University academics: Perspectives from Uganda. By: Ssesanga, Karim; Garrett, Roger. Higher Education, Jul2005, Vol. 50 Issue 1, p33-56, 24p; 83 Through the magnifying glass: A descriptive theoretical analysis of the possible impact of the South African higher education policies on academic staff and their job satisfaction. By: Mapesela, Mabokang; Hay, H.. Higher Education, Jul2005, Vol. 50 Issue 1, p111-128, 18p; 84 The nurse manager: job satisfaction, the nursing shortage and retention. By: Andrews, Diane Randall; Dziegielewski, Sophia F.. Journal of Nursing Management, Jul 2005, Vol. 13 Issue 4, p286-295, 10p; 85 Job satisfaction in nursing: validation of a new instrument for the UK. By: Murrells, Trevor; Clinton, Michael; Robinson, Sarah. Journal of Nursing Management, Jul2005, Vol. 13 Issue 4, p296-311, 16p; 86 Job satisfaction in relation to change to all-RN staffing. By: Lundgren, Solveig M.; Nordholm, Lena; Segesten, Kerstin. Journal of Nursing Management, Jul2005, Vol. 13 Issue 4, p322-328, 7p; 87 CLINICAL SUPERVISION, BURNOUT, AND JOB SATISFACTION AMONG MENTAL HEALTH AND PSYCHIATRIC NURSES IN FINLAND. By: Kristiina Hyrks. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, Jun2005, Vol. 26 Issue 5, p531-556, 26p; 88 Gender Differences in the Job Satisfaction of Public Employees: A Study of Seoul Metropolitan Government, Korea. By: Kim, Sangmook. Sex Roles, May2005, Vol. 52 Issue 9/10, p667-681, 15p; 89 ATISFACTION DIFFERENTIALS AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN FACULTY AT 2-YEAR AND 4-YEAR INSTITUTIONS. By: Flowers, Lamont A.. Community College Journal of Research & Practice, Apr/May2005, Vol. 29 Issue 4, p317-328, 12p, 90 European Higher Education Graduates and Job Satisfaction. By: MORA, JOS-GINS; VILA, LUIS E.; GARCA-ARACIL, ADELA. European Journal of Education, Mar2005, Vol. 40 Issue 1, p35-44, 10p; 91 Burnout and job satisfaction comparing healthcare staff of a dermatological hospital and a general hospital. By: Renzi, C.; Tabolli, S.; Ianni, A.; Di Pietro, C.; Puddu, P.. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology & Venereology, Mar2005, Vol. 19 Issue 2, p153-157, 5p; 92 Job Satisfaction among Employees of a Youth Development Organization. By: Petty, Gregory C.; Brewer, Ernest W.; Brown, Beth. Child & Youth Care Forum, Feb2005, Vol. 34 Issue 1, p57-73, 17p, 93 Nurse job satisfaction and retention: comparing public to private hospitals in Jordan. By: Mrayyan, Majd Tawfeeq. Journal of Nursing Management, Jan2005, Vol. 13 Issue 1, p40-50, 11p; 94 Rudd, W. G. A and Wiseman, S. (1962), Sources of Dissatisfaction Among a Group of Teachers, British Journal of Educational Psychology. 32, 275-291. 95 Stagner, R. Flabee, D. R. And Wood E. A. (1952) Working on the Rail Board: A Study of Job Satisfaction, Personnel Psychology, 5, 293-306. 96 Chopra R. K. (1986), Institutional Climate and Teacher Job Satisfaction, Indian Education, 32, 4, 333-346. 97 Blum, M. L. and Naylor, J. C. (1968) Industrial Psychology, Harper and Row, New York. 364-386. 98 Carrell, M. R. and Elbert N. F. (1974) Some Personal and Organisational Determinants of Job Satisfaction of Postal Clerks, Academy of Management Journal, 17, 2, 368-372. 99 Shah, K (1982) Socio-economic Background of Primary School Teachers and Job Satisfaction, Research in Sociology of Education Abstracts (In), Buch M. B. (Ed) Fourth Survey of Research in Education (1983-88). Vol. 1 NCERT, New Delhi. 188, 195. 100 .Srivastava, M. K. (1986) A Study of Qualities, Values, Attitudes, Activities, and Adaptation of Teacher Educators, Research in Teacher Education Abstracts (In) Buch M. B. (Ed) Fourth Survey of Research of Education (1983-88) Vol. 2, NCERT, 1161,995. 101 .Abdual Samad (1986), Study of Organisational Climate of Government High Schools of Chandigarh and its effect on job satisfaction of teachers, Research in Teacher Education Abstracts (In) Buch M. B. (Ed), Fourth Survey of Research in Education (1983-88) Vol. 2, NCERT Publication, New Delhi 1034, 917. 102 Anjaneyulu, B.S.R. (1968) A Study of Job Satisfaction in the Secondary School Teachers and its Impact on the Education of Pupils with Special Reference to the State of Andhra Pradesh, A Survey of Research in Education, Buch M. B (Ed), Centre of Advanced Study in Education, M. S. University, Baroda. 103 Ara, Hasreen (1986) A Study of Principals Leadership Behaviour in Relation of Teachers Self Concept, Job Satisfaction and Some Other Institutional Characteristics at Secondary Schools Level, Research in Educational Management Abstracts, 1207, 1070, (In) Buch M. B. (Ed), Fourth Survey of Research in Education (1983-88) Volume-2, NCERT, New Delhi. Methodology The research in hand was related to present situation. Therefore the researcher had used the Descriptive Survey Method. He had used Standardized Questionnaire (S.Q.) developed by Cooper , for measuring the General Satisfaction of the employees, as a tool for collecting the data. Though it was a Standardized Questionnaire , the researcher took the expertise opinion from the Experts pertaining to it and made modification as per their suggestions. In the S.Q. point number 19, words were written abbreviated as w. r. but the expert suggested it should be written in a full form. S.Q. was included 22 statements following six circles given between High Satisfaction and Low Satisfaction. It was as six point questionnaire. After the discussion with the Experts, it was decided that six point should be defined six grades as given below with their value.. GRADE RANGE WEIGHT AGE REMARKS E 0-19 1 Lowest Satisfaction D 20-39 2 Lower Satisfaction C 40-49 3 Low Satisfaction B 50-59 4 Satisfactory Satisfaction A 60-74 5 Higher Satisfaction O +75 6 Highest Satisfaction When the responses were gathered, every responses were weighted as was scheduled above . YCMOU had then 36 academics and 275 non-academic staff and thus 311 employees were working in YCMOU. Out of this target group near about 25% sampling i.e. 80 only was taken for the research: Samples had been selected randomly as per the availability of the employees. Stratified Random Sampling method was used for the research. Employees were chosen from academic staff and also from non-academic staff and from each category as given below. _ Academic . Non-academic Reader Lecturer Total . class I class II class III class IV Total Population 8 6 22 36 72 18 155 30 275 Sampling 2 2 6 10 20 5 40 5 70 (Near About 25%) In all 10+70=80 Sampling size. CONCLUSION: Objective No.1: About the Job Satisfaction of the Academic Staff of YCMOU. Conclusion : 1. Job satisfaction of the Academic Staff was found A Grade Satisfaction (62.42%) 2. Factor/variable wise job satisfaction in grades of the Academic Staff is given below. Circulars & Communication A Interactions B Importance to our efforts A Task A Motivation A Opportunities A Safety of Service A University Objectives & Participation O Supervision A Change and Its Process B Working Method A Individual Progress A Procedure of Redress of Complaints C Scope of work for progress A Participation in Decisions C Utilization of the Capacity /Ability B About Freedom & Elasticity Freedom & Elasticity A Atmosphere A Salary B University Structure B Quality of the work given to the Employee A About the Total Work A Objectives No.2: About the Job Satisfaction of the Class I Employees in YCMOU. Conclusion : Job satisfaction of the Class I Staff was found A Grade Satisfaction (68.64%) Factor/variable wise job satisfaction in grades of the Class I Employees is given below. Circulars & Communication A Interactions A Importance to our efforts A Task A Motivation A Opportunities A Safety of Service A University Objectives & Participation A Supervision A Change and Its Process A Working Method A Individual Progress A Procedure of Redress of Complaints A Scope of work for progress A Participation in Decisions A Utilization of the Capacity /Ability B About Freedom & Elasticity Freedom & Elasticity A Atmosphere A Salary O University Structure A Quality of the work given to the Employee A About the Total Work A Objectives No.3: About the Job Satisfaction of the Class II Employees in YCMOU. Conclusion : Job satisfaction of the Class II Employees was found A Grade Satisfaction (68.78%) Factor/variable wise job satisfaction in grades of the Class II employees is given below. Circulars & Communication A Interactions A Importance to our efforts A Task O Motivation A Opportunities A Safety of Service O University Objectives & Participation O Supervision A Change and Its Process A Working Method A Individual Progress A Procedure of Redress of Complaints A Scope of work for progress A Participation in Decisions B Utilization of the Capacity /Ability B About Freedom & Elasticity Freedom & Elasticity A Atmosphere A Salary O University Structure A Quality of the work given to the Employee A About the Total Work O Objectives No.4: About the Job Satisfaction of the Class III Employees in YCMOU. Conclusion : Job satisfaction of Class III Staff was found A Grade Satisfaction (63.98%) 2.Factor/variable wise job satisfaction in grades of the Class III Employees is given below. Circulars & Communication B Interactions A Importance to our efforts B Task A Motivation A Opportunities A Safety of Service A University Objectives & Participation O Supervision A Change and Its Process B Working Method A Individual Progress A Procedure of Redress of Complaints B Scope of work for progress A Participation in Decisions C Utilization of the Capacity /Ability B About Freedom & Elasticity Freedom & Elasticity A Atmosphere A Salary B University Structure A Quality of the work given to the Employee A About the Total Work A Objectives No.5: About the Job Satisfaction of the Class IV Employees in YCMOU. Conclusion : 1.Job Satisfaction of the Class IV employees was found A Grade Satisfaction (67.27%) Factor/variable wise job satisfaction in grades of the Class IV employees is given below. Circulars & Communication A Interactions A Importance to our efforts A Task A Motivation A Opportunities A Safety of Service O University Objectives & Participation O Supervision A Change and Its Process A Working Method A Individual Progress A Procedure of Redress of Complaints B Scope of work for progress A Participation in Decisions B Utilization of the Capacity /Ability B About Freedom & Elasticity Freedom & Elasticity A Atmosphere A Salary A University Structure A Quality of the work given to the Employee A About the Total Work O Objectives No.6: About Overall General Job Satisfaction of the Non-academic Staff in YCMOU. Conclusion : 1.Job satisfaction of the Non academic Staff of YCMOU was found A Grade Satisfaction (65.78%) 2.Factor/variable wise job satisfaction in grades of the Non academic Staff of YCMOU is given below. Circulars & Communication A Interactions A Importance to our efforts B Task A Motivation A Opportunities A Safety of Service A University Objectives & Participation O Supervision A Change and Its Process A Working Method A Individual Progress A Procedure of Redress of Complaints B Scope of work for progress A Participation in Decisions C Utilization of the Capacity /Ability B About Freedom & Elasticity Freedom & Elasticity A Atmosphere A Salary A University Structure A Quality of the work given to the Employee A About the Total Work O Objectives No.7: About Overall General Job Satisfaction of all the employees working in YCMOU Conclusion : 1. Overall General Job Satisfaction of all sort of employees of YCMOU was found A Grade Satisfaction (64.80%) 2.Factor/variable wise job satisfaction in grades of all the employees working in YCMOU is given below. Circulars & Communication A Interactions A Importance to our efforts B Task A Motivation A Opportunities A Safety of Service A University Objectives & Participation O Supervision A Change and Its Process B Working Method A Individual Progress A Procedure of Redress of Complaints B Scope of work for progress A Participation in Decisions C Utilization of the Capacity /Ability B About Freedom & Elasticity Freedom & Elasticity A Atmosphere A Salary A University Structure A Quality of the work given to the Employee A About the Total Work A Objectives No.8: To make general remarks pertaining to job satisfaction of the employees of YCMOU comparing academic staff and each category level of non-academic staff of YCMOU. Conclusion : Overall Job Satisfaction of YCMOU , Non academic staff (65.78%)was more satisfied than those of Academic staff(62.42). And in Non academic Staff, Class II employees (68.78%) were more satisfied than those of other classes. (Class I was 68.64%,Class III was 63.98% and Class IV was 67.27%) Subscribe to the comments for this post? Share this on del.icio.us Digg this! Post this on Diigo Post on Google Buzz Add this to Mister Wong Share this on Mixx Share this on Reddit Stumble upon something good? Share it on StumbleUpon Share this on Technorati Tweet This!
Climate Change: The 40 Year Delay Between Cause and Effect
Guest post by Alan Marshall from climatechangeanswers.org Following the failure to reach a strong agreement at the Copenhagen conference, climate skeptics have had a good run in the Australian media, continuing their campaigns of disinformation. In such an atmosphere it is vital that we articulate the basic science of climate change, the principles of physics and chemistry which the skeptics ignore. The purpose of this article is to clearly explain, in everyday language, the two key principles which together determine the rate at which temperatures rise. The first principle is the greenhouse effect of carbon dioxide and other gases. The second principle is the thermal inertia of the oceans, sometimes referred to as climate lag. Few people have any feel for the numbers involved with the latter, so I will deal with it in more depth. The Greenhouse Effect The greenhouse effect takes its name from the glass greenhouse, which farmers have used for centuries, trapping heat to grow tomatoes and other plants that could not otherwise be grown in the colder regions of the world. Like glass greenhouses, greenhouse gases allow sunlight to pass through unhindered, but trap heat radiation on its way out. The molecular structure of CO2 is such that it is tuned to the wavelengths of infrared (heat) radiation emitted by the Earths surface back into space, in particular to the 15 micrometer band. The molecules resonate, their vibrations absorbing the energy of the infra-red radiation. It is vibrating molecules that give us the sensation of heat, and it is by this mechanism that heat energy is trapped by the atmosphere and re-radiated to the surface. The extent to which temperatures will rise due to a given change in the concentration of greenhouse gases is known as the climate sensitivity, and you may find it useful to search for this term when doing your own research. Most principles of physics are beyond question because both cause and effect are well understood. A relationship between cause and effect is proved by repeatable experiments. This is the essence of the scientific method, and the source of knowledge on which we have built our technological civilization. We do not question Newtons laws of motion because we can demonstrate them in the laboratory. We no longer question that light and infrared radiation are electromagnetic waves because we can measure their wavelengths and other properties in the laboratory. Likewise, there should be no dissent that CO2 absorbs infrared radiation, because that too has been demonstrated in the laboratory. In fact, it was first measured 150 years ago by John Tyndall [i] using a spectrophotometer. In line with the scientific method, his results have been confirmed and more precisely quantified by Herzberg in 1953, Burch in 1962 and 1970, and others since then. Given that the radiative properties of CO2 have been proven in the laboratory, you would expect them to be same in the atmosphere, given that they are dependent on CO2s unchanging molecular structure. You would think that the onus would be on the climate skeptics to demonstrate that CO2 behaves differently in the atmosphere than it does in the laboratory. Of course they have not done so. In fact, since 1970 satellites have measured infrared spectra emitted by the Earth and confirmed not only that CO2 traps heat, but that it has trapped more heat as concentrations of CO2 have risen. The above graph clearly shows that at the major wavelength for absorption by CO2, and also at wavelength for absorption by methane, that less infrared was escaping in to space in 1996 compared to 1970. After 150 years of scientific investigation, the impact of CO2 on the climate is well understood. Anyone who tells you different is selling snakeoil. The Thermal Inertia of the Oceans If we accept that greenhouse gases are warming the planet, the next concept that needs to be grasped is that it takes time, and we have not yet seen the full rise in temperature that will occur as a result of the CO2 we have already emitted. The Earths average surface temperature has already risen by 0.8 degrees C since 1900. The concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is increasing at the rate of 2 ppm per year. Scientists tell us that even if CO2 was stabilized at its current level of 390 ppm, there is at least another 0.6 degrees in the pipeline. If findings from a recent study of Antarctic ice cores is confirmed, the last figure will prove to be conservative [ii]. The delayed response is known as climate lag. The reason the planet takes several decades to respond to increased CO2 is the thermal inertia of the oceans. Consider a saucepan of water placed on a gas stove. Although the flame has a temperature measured in hundreds of degrees C, the water takes a few minutes to reach boiling point. This simple analogy explains climate lag. The mass of the oceans is around 500 times that of the atmosphere. The time that it takes to warm up is measured in decades. Because of the difficulty in quantifying the rate at which the warm upper layers of the ocean mix with the cooler deeper waters, there is significant variation in estimates of climate lag. A paper by James Hansen and others[iii]estimatesthe time required for 60% of global warming to take place in response to increased emissionsto be in the range of 25 to 50 years. The mid-point of this is 37.5 which I have rounded to 40 years. In recent times, climate skeptics have been peddling a lot of nonsense about average temperatures actually cooling over the last decade. There was a brief dip around the year 2000 following the extreme El Nino event of 1998, but with greenhouse emissions causing a planetary energy imbalance of 0.85 watts per square metre [iv], there is inevitably a continual rising trend in global temperatures. It should then be no surprise to anyone that the 12 month period June 2009 to May 2010 was the hottest on record [v]. The graph below from Australias CSIRO [vi] shows a clear rising trend in temperatures as well as a rising trend in sea-level. Implications of the 40 Year Delay The estimate of 40 years for climate lag, the time between the cause (increased greenhouse gas emissions) and the effect (increased temperatures), has profound negative consequences for humanity. However, if governments can find the will to act, there are positive consequences as well. With 40 years between cause and effect, it means that average temperatures of the last decade are a result of what we were thoughtlessly putting into the air in the 1960s. It also means that the true impact of our emissions over the last decade will not be felt until the 2040s. This thought should send a chill down your spine! Conservative elements in both politics and the media have been playing up uncertainties in some of the more difficult to model effects of climate change, while ignoring the solid scientific understanding of the cause. If past governments had troubled themselves to understand the cause, and acted in a timely way, climate change would have been contained with minimal disruption. By refusing to acknowledge the cause, and demanding to see the effects before action is taken, past governments have brought on the current crisis. By the time they see those effects, it will too late to deal with the cause. The positive consequence of climate lag is the opportunity for remedial action before the ocean warms to its full extent. We need to not only work towards reducing our carbon emissions to near zero by 2050, but well before then to begin removing excess CO2 from the atmosphere on an industrial scale. Biochar is one promising technology that can have an impact here. Synthetic trees, with carbon capture and storage, is another. If an international agreement can be forged to provide a framework for not only limiting new emissions, but sequestering old emissions, then the full horror of the climate crisis may yet be averted. Spreading the Word The clock is ticking. All of us who understand clearly the science of climate change, and its implications for humanity, should do what we can to inform the public debate. I wrote the original version of this article in February 2010 to help inform the Parliament of Australia. The letter was sent to 40 MPs and senators, and has received positive feedback from both members of the three largest parties. To find out more about this information campaign, and for extensive coverage of the science of climate change and its technological, economic and political solutions, please visit my web site at www.climatechangeanswers.org. References i Gulf Times, A Last Chance to Avert Disaster, available atwww.gulf-times.com/site/topics/article.asp? cu_no=2&item_no=330396&version=1&template_id=46&parent_id=26 ii Institute of Science in Society, 350 ppm CO2 The Target,www.i-sis.org.uk/350ppm_CO2_the_Target.php, p.4 iii Science AAAS, Earths Energy Imbalance: Confirmation and Implications, available (after free registration) at www.scienceonline.org/cgi/reprint/1110252v1.pdf, p.1 iv NASA, The Ocean Heat Trap, available at www.ocean.com, p.3 vNASA GISS temperature record (see http://climateprogress.org/2010/06/03/nasa-giss-james-hansen-study-global-warming-record-hottest-year/) viCSIRO, Sea Level Rise, available at www.cmar.csiro.au/sealevel/sl_drives_longer.html
Boys basketball: Auburn tops Franklin for title-game bid
James Smylie paced the Saints with 13 points ... Carrollton’s Cody Kraut and Tyler Watson had 13 points apiece. Leo Herzberger and Tanner Huddleston each scored 10 points to lead Concord Triopia past Havana 52-38 in another tournament game.
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EXCLUSIVE: Elvis Presley's Doctor Claims He Died Of An ...
LOS ANGELES – It has been widely reported that Elvis Presley died in 1977 from cardiac arrhythmia, an irregular heartbeat, possibly brought on by drug ...
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James Wolcott; Robert Wright; Matthew Yglesias; ARCHIVE. February 2012 January 2012 December 2011 November 2011 October 2011 September 2011 View All
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Biography Research Teaching Leading Teams Publications Public ... Them Great (with Ruth Wageman, Debra Nunes, and James ... Velton, Bobby Miller, Bob Turner, and Vern Herzberger.
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David Herzberger, Modern International Drama, 9.2., 1976, 65–91). ... James Hewitt, Evergreen Review 4.15, 1960, 76–90); (Pic-nic, etc. ...
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